Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
2013-02-21 19:23:02

Organic Chemistry for Midterm Exam
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  1. What is the main component of a compound that makes it Organic?
  2. What two types of bonds do organic compounds form?
    • (1) MAINLY covalent bonds
    • (2) some polar covalent bonds
  3. True or False: Organic compounds support combustion.
  4. What is the definition of a function group?
    -The group of atoms that determine the characteristic properties of a compound

    -Have a characteristic structures and behaviors related to how the molecule reacts with other molecules and how it reacts with its target (target= physiologic response/effect)
  5. What four families of organic compounds are, in their purest form, considered hydrocarbons?
    • (1) Alkane
    • (2) Alkene
    • (3) Alkyne
    • (4) Aromatic
  6. What differentiates alkanes from alkenes and alkynes?
    Only single bonds, and theoretically no other functional group.
  7. If an alkane loses a hydrogen it becomes a(n) ___________?
    Alkyl Group
  8. If propane loses a hydrogen from the end of the carbon chain it becomes a(n):
    Propyl Group
  9. If propane loses a hydrogen from the middle of the carbon chain it becomes a(n):
    Isopropyl Group
  10. What is halogenation?
    The process by which an alkane combines with a halogen. (Either once or repeatedly)
  11. What bonds define an alkene compound?
    Carbon-Carbon double bonds
  12. What bonds define an alkyne compound?
    Carbon-Carbon triple bonds
  13. What bonds define an aromatic compound?
    Cyclical shape with alternating double bonds
  14. What is the definition of an isomer?
    Chemical compounds that have identical molecular formulas but different structure

    (Different compounds that have the same molecular formula)
  15. What is the difference between a structural (constitutional) isomer and a stereoisomer?
    Structural- same molecular formula, different bonded connections among the individual atoms

    Stereoisomer- same molecular formula, different arrangement of atoms in 3 dimensional space
  16. What are the three categories of stereoisomers?
    • (1) Optical Isomer
    • (2) Geometric Isomer (connection to alkenes)
    • (3) Conformational Isomer
  17. What type of isomer does enflorane and isoflurane demonstrate?
    Structural (Constitutional) Isomers

    • -Same molecular formula, chlorine and subsequently other substituents located in different places
    • -Different places= different physiological effects, different MACs, different vapor pressures
    • -Same oil:gas partition coefficients
  18. What defines an optical isomer?
    -Rotates light either clockwise (dextrorotatory) or counter-clockwise (levorotatory)

    -Non superimposable [mirror images of each other, not identical (hand)]
  19. What types of Geometric Isomers are there?
    Cis- substituents located on the same side of the carbon double bond

    Trans- substituents locate don opposite sides of the carbon double bond
  20. What is an enantiomer?
    Enantiomer is the individual chiral molecule

    -Mirror images of each other, but they are different compounds (even though they have identical molecular formulas and atom connectivity)

    -For the hand example: The enantiomers would be the right hand and the left hand
  21. What is a chiral?
    An object that is not superimposable. Only mirror images of each other.

    -For hand example: molecule is chiral if there is a "right-handed" form of the moelcule that is  different from the "left-handed" form
  22. What is a racemic mixture?
    Equal mixture of enantiomers. 

    Does not rotate light in any way because the molecules cancel each other out.
  23. What does Markovnikov's Rule State?
    Hydrogen will go to the carbon already bonded to the most hydrogens and the halogen goes to the other carbon
  24. What is a polymer?
    A large molecule formed by the repetitive bonding together of many smaller molecules
  25. What is a monomer?
    A small molecule that is used to prepare a polymer
  26. When does a polymerization reaction occur?
    When a monomer is treated with a catalyst to form the polymer

    Exothermic process: heat released from reaction.

    High temperature can cause tissue necrosis (in total hip example) can be associated with hypotension (vaporized monomer)
  27. For a benzene ring, what prefix represents a substituent group at locations 1 and 2?
  28. For a benzene ring, what prefix represents a substituent group at locations 1 and 4?
  29. For a benzene ring, what prefix represents a substituent group at locations 1 and 3?
  30. What is a primary alcohol?
    one R group on an OH-bearing carbon
  31. What is a secondary alcohol?
    two R groups on an OH-bearing carbon
  32. What is a tertiary alcohol?
    Three R groups on an OH-bearing carbon
  33. For an alcohol, solubility depends on the number of __________?
    Carbons associated with the -OH group
  34. What two reactions does alcohol participate in?
    • (1) Dehydration
    • (2) Oxidation