Kinesiology Exam 2

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Kinesiology Exam 2
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2013-03-13 15:04:25
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  1. Hip Bones(5)
    • Femur
    • Sacrum
    • Ilium
    • Pubis
    • Ischium
  2. Pelvis
    • right and left halves
    • made of three bones
    • **ilium
    • **ischium
    • **pubis
    • Separate bones at birth
    • fused at maturity
  3. Femur
    • Long bone
    • function: lever
    • longest bone in the body
  4. sacrum
    • extension of the spinal column
    • 5 fused vertabrae
    • located posteriorly between the two pelvic bones
    • sacroiliac joint formed by the juntion of the pelvis and sacrum
  5. ilium bone
    • flat bone
    • function: for protection
  6. pubic bone
    • irregular bone
    • function: protection
  7. ischium
    • irregular bone
    • function: protection
  8. Hip joint (composition)
    • large stable joint
    • Made of: head of femur(ball) and  acetebulum of pelvis(socket)
    • structure: synovial joint
    • Function: ball and socket joint
  9. hip joint (function)
    • stability
    • mobility
    • shock absorption
    • protection
  10. hip joint (degrees of freedom)
    • 3 degrees of freedom
    • frontal plane moption
    • sagittal plane motion
    • transverse plane motion
  11. femoral head
    • ball
    • spherical, smooth surface
    • covered by articular cartilage
  12. articular cartilage
    • cartilage that covers the ends of bones that form joints
    • called hyaline cartilage
    • shock absoprtion
    • joint nutrition
  13. acetabulum
    • socket
    • lined by hyaline articular cartilage
    • needs to support entire body weight
    • latin: little vinegar cup
  14. acetabulur labrum
    • fibrocartilage
    • deepens the socket
    • provides more stability
    • provides proprioception(awareness)
    • latin: lip
  15. femoroacetabular ligaments (3 main)
    • illiofemoral ligament
    • ischiofemoral ligament
    • pubofemoral ligament
    • function: stability
    • strong ligaments
  16. illiofemoral ligament
    • ilium to femur
    • anterior to hip joint
    • prevents abduction and external rotation
  17. ischiofemoral ligament
    • connects the ischium to the femur
    • triangular band of strong fibers
    • posterior side of hip
    • limits medial rotation
  18. pubofemoral ligament
    • pubis to femur
    • anterior to hip joint
    • limits abduction
  19. hip movements (6)
    • flexion
    • extension
    • hip abduction
    • hip adduction
    • internal rotation
    • external rotation
  20. hip flexion
    • movement of the femur straight anteriorly toward the pelvis
    • normal ROM: 0-130°
    • large variability in "normal" ROM
    • saggital plane motion
  21. hip extension
    • movement of the femur straight posteriorly away from the pelvis
    • normal ROM: 0-30°
    • saggital plane motion
  22. hip abduction
    • movement of the femur laterally to the side away from the midline
    • natural ROM: 0-30°
    • frontal plane motion
  23. hip adduction
    • movement of the femur medially towards the midline
    • normal ROM: 0-30°
    • frontal plane motion
  24. hip internal rotation
    • rotary movement of the femur medially around its longitudinal axis towards the midline
    • also called medial rotation
    • normal ROM: 0-45°
    • transverse plane motion
  25. Hip external rotation
    • rotary movement of the femur laterally around its longitudinal axis away from the midline
    • also called lateral rotation
    • natural ROM: 0-50°
    • transverse plane motion
  26. Hip flexors (6)
    • psoas (major and minor)
    • illiacus
    • rectus femoris
    • sartorius
    • tensor fascia latae
    • adductor longus
    • PIRSTA
  27. psoas major and minor
    • O: T12-L5 vertebrae
    • I: lesser trochanter of femur
    • A: hip flexion
  28. illiacus
    • O: Inner part of illium
    • I: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • A: Hip flexion
  29. recuts femoris
    • O: Iliac spine
    • I: tibial tuberosity
    • A: Hip flexion, knee extension
  30. sartorius
    • O: Anterior illium
    • I: Upper medial tibia
    • A: Hip Felxion
  31. tensor fascia latae
    • O: Anterior iliac crest
    • I: IT band
    • A: Hip flexion, hip abduction
  32. adductor longus
    • O: anterior pubis
    • I: Proximal medial femur
    • A: hip flexion, hip adduction
  33. hip extension
    • movement of femur straight posteriorly away from the pelvis
    • normal ROM: 0-30°
    • saggital plane of motion
  34. hip extensors(4)
    • gluteus maximus
    • semimembranosis
    • semitendinosus
    • biceps femoris
  35. gluteus maximus
    • O: posterior ilium
    • I: greater trochanter of femur and IT band
    • A: hip extension, external rotation
  36. semimembranosus
    • O: ischial tuberosity
    • I: proximal medial tibia
    • A: hip extension, knee flexion
  37. semitendinosus
    • O: ischial tuberosity
    • I: proximal medial tibial
    • A: hip extension, knee flexion
  38. biceps femoris
    • O: ischial tuberosity
    • I: lateral condyle
    • A: hip extension, knee flexion
  39. hip abduction
    • movement of the femur laterally to the side away from the midline
    • normal ROM: 0-45°
    • frontal plane motion
  40. Hip abductors (3)
    • gluteus medius
    • gluteus minimus
    • tenso fascia latae
  41. gluteus medius
    • O: lateral ilium
    • I: Greater tochanter
    • A: Hip abduction, also internal rotation (anterior fibers) and external rotation (posterior fibers)
  42. gluteus minimus
    • O: lateral ilium (below gluteus medius)
    • I: greater trochanter
    • A: Hip abduction also internal rotation (anterior fibers) and external rotation (posterior fibers)
  43. tensor fascia latae
    • O: anterior iliac crest
    • I: IT band
    • A: Hip abduction
  44. hip adduction
    • movement of the femur medially towards the midline
    • normal ROM: 0-30°
    • Frontal plane motion
  45. hip adductors (5)
    • adductor longus
    • adductor brevis
    • adductor magnus
    • pectinius
    • gracilis
  46. adductor longus
    • O: anterior pubis
    • I: Proximal medial femur
    • A: Hip adduction and hip flexion
  47. adductor brevis
    • O: anteroinferior pubis
    • I: proximal medial femur
    • A: hip adduction
  48. Adductor Magnus
    • O: pubis, ischium and ischial tuberosity
    • I: posterior and medial femur
    • A: hip adduction
  49. pectineus
    • O: pubis
    • I: upper medial femur
    • A: hip flexion, adduction of hip and internal rotation
  50. gracilis
    • O: pubis
    • I: medial tibia
    • A: hip adduction, hip internal rotation
  51. hip internal rotators (5)
    • gracilis
    • pectinius
    • gluteus medius (anterior fibers)
    • gluteus minimus (anterior fibers)
    • tensor fascia latae
  52. Hip external rotators (3 +6 deep)
    • gluteus medius (posterior fibers)
    • gluteus minimus (psoterior fibers)
    • gluteus maximus
    • 6 deep external rotators
    •      piriformis
    •      superior glemellus
    •      inferior glemellus
    •      obturator internus
    •      quadratus femoris
    •      obturator externus
  53. 6 deep external rotators
    • O: sacrum and/or ischium
    • I: great trochanter
    • A: hip external rotation
  54. hip injuries
    • hip impingement/femoroacetabular impingement
    • avascular necrosis
    • greater trochanter bursitis
    • hip fracture
    • slipped capital femoral epiphysis
    • hip pointer/contusion
    • hip labral tear
    • stress fractures
    • adductor strain
    • total hip replacement
  55. avascular necrosis
    • disruption of blood supply due to:
    • trauma
    • steroid use: asthma
    • alcoholism: fatty deposits in bloodstream
    • symptoms: pain in groin, ROM loss
    • treatment: activity modification/surgery
  56. slipped capital epiphysis
    • Incidence:
    • 2 out of 100,000 children
    • most common after onset of puberty
    • makes>females
    • more common in obese children
    • bilateral  involvement occurs in over 25% of patients
    • cause:
    • unknown
    • weakening of growth plate due to: trauma, inflammation, changes in hormone levels
  57. presentation of slipped capital epiphysis
    • 25% of patients present with knee pain
    • worsens with activity
    • walks with limp
    • cannot put weight affected leg in sever cases
    • affected leg is often turned outward in comparison to normal leg
    • loss of flexion and internal rotation ROM
  58. treatment of slipped capital epiphysis
    • surgery: stabilize bone with pins or screws(bones are left with tilt seen at presentation
    • possible complications:
    • chondrlysis
    • avascular necrosis
    • greater risk of OA
    • 1 short limb due to premature closer of the growth plate.
  59. hip fracture
    • usually to the femoral neck of the femur
    • cause by trauma:
    • falls, car accisdents
    • usually over 65, bones become less dense with age, women>men
    • Symptoms:
    • pain in groin
    • unable to bear weight on lef
    • swelling and bruising
    • Treatment:
    • surgery
  60. lateral soft tissue lesions
    • most common affected tissue:
    • gluteus medius tendon
    • trochanteric bursa (hip bursitis)
    • Common symptoms:pain over the greater trochanter
    • pain with increased hip movements (walking, and stair climbing)
    • if sever, pain when sleeping on affected side.
  61. IT band
    • tests and measures: pain when stretch IT band
    • pain when a contract gluteus medius ro tensor fascia latae
    • prevalence and etiology:
    • 15% in women and 6.6% in men
    • acute trauma(falls, impact)
    • repetitive trauma (rubbing of IT band against bursa during repetitive motion) often related to increased activity or exercise
    • management:
    • addresses inflammation, ice, NSAIDs, rest, cortisone shot of severe
    • stretch IT band
    • restore hip ROM
    • strengthen gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae
  62. hip pointer
    • bruise to the illium
    • pain ABOVE groin
    • treated with rest, ice, padding
  63. stress fractures
    • caused by overuse:
    • runners
    • military
    • poor biomechanics
    • usually occurs at femoral neck
    • pain in groin:
    • pain with running
    • often no pain with walking or sitting
    • treatment:
    • rest
    • pool running
    • biomechanics analysis
    • training modification
  64. adductor (groin) strain
    • pain in adductors (usually adductor longus)
    • excessive motion
    • treatment:
    • rest, ice
    • regain motion
    • eccentric loading when able
  65. acetabular labral tear
    • tear of fibrocartilage labrum
    • causes:
    • trauma
    • excessive motion---> golf, hockey, gymnastics
    • symptoms:
    • may have no symptoms
    • may have groin pain--->catching or popping
    • pain with twisting
    • motion loss
    • treatment:
    • nonsurgical: motion restoration, neuromuscular control
    • surgical: repair debridement
  66. hip replacement
    • pain in groin due to SEVERE osterarthritis or trauma
    • protective cartilage of the hip erodes
  67. articular cartilage
    • protects the ends of bones:
    • tough but elastic
    • deformable yet stiff
    • if it wears away-underlying bone is exposed and this is painful
  68. hip replacement
    • replaces the ball and socket
    • end stage operation
    • nothing else helped
    • patient cant walk, function or sleep
    • good outcome but has risks
    • risks:
    • infection
    • blood clots
    • death
  69. CAM FAI
    • big femoral neck
    • "linebacker"
  70. pincer FAI
    overgrown acetabulum
  71. mixed FAI
    CAM and pincer together
  72. FAI hip osteoarthritis
    • ROM needs to be considered when considering the etiology of osteoarthritis in the hip
    • often goes undiagnosed for years
  73. typical FAI patient presentation
    • anterior groin pain
    • limited hip flexion
    • limited hip internal rotation
    • positive FAI test
    • pain with sitting
    • pain with bending
    • pain with twisting
  74. differential diagnosis of FAI
    • avascular necrosis
    • slipped capital femoral epiphysis
    • labral tearain
    • hip fracture
    • femoral nerve entrapment
    • lumbar radiculopathy
    • hernia
    • hip frature
    • stress fracture
    • OA
    • cancer
    • adductor strain
    • psoas strain
  75. locomotion
    the act of moving from one place to another
  76. gait
    the manner of walking
  77. walking
    a smooth, highly coordinated,rhythimcal, undulating, reciprocal movement by which the body moves step by step in the required direction at the necessary speed
  78. gait cycle
    the period of time from one event(usually initial contact)od one foot to following occurrence of the same even with the ipsilateral foot
  79. stride
    the period from the initial contact of a particular limb to the point of initial contact of the SAME limb and is equivalent to one gate cycle
  80. step
    • the period from initial contact of one limb to the initial contact of the contralateral limb.
    • therefore there are two steps in each stride (or gait cycle)
  81. stance phase
    the period of time when the foot is in contact with the ground
  82. swing phase
    • the period of time when the foot is not in contact with the ground.
    • in those cases where the foot never leaves the ground (drag foot) it can be defined as the phase when all portions of the foot are in forward motion
  83. double support
    • the period of the time when both feet are in contact with the ground
    • this occurs twice in the gait cyle
    • at the beginning of stance phase and at the end
  84. single support
    • the period of time when only one foot is in contact with the ground.
    • in walking this is equal with the swing phase of the other limb
  85. initial contact
    • the point in the gait cycle when the foot initially makes contact with the ground
    • represents the beginning of stance phase
    • foot strike
  86. terminal contact
    • the point in the gait cycle when the foot leaves the ground
    • this represents the end of the stance phase OR the beginning of the swing phase
    • toe-off should not be use in situations where the to is not the last part of the foot to leave the ground
  87. toe-off
    when terminal contact is made with the toe
  88. foot flat
    the point in time in the stance phase when the full foot is in contact with the ground
  89. heel off
    the point in the stance phase when the heel leaves the ground
  90. step length
    • the distance from a point of contact with the ground of one foot to the following occurrence with the other foot
    • the right step length is the distance from the left heel to the right heel when both feet are in contact with the ground.
    • expressed in meters
  91. step period
    • the period of time taken for one step and is measured from an even of one foot to the following occurrence of the same event of the other foot
    • expressed in seconds
  92. stride length
    • the distance from initial contact of one foot to the following initial contact of the same foot.
    • sometimes referred to as cycle length
    • measured in meters
  93. stride period or cycle time
    • the period of time from initial contact of one foot to the following initial contact of the other same foot
    • measured in seconds
  94. velocity
    • the reate of change of the linear displacement along the direction of progression measured over one or more strides
    • meter per second
  95. cadence
    • the rate at which a person walks
    • steps per minute
  96. stance/swing ratio
    • the ratio of stance period to swing period
    • 60% stance
    • 40% swing
  97. walking base (or stride width)
    the side to side distance between the feet which is typically measured from ankle joint center
  98. normal cadence/velocity
    the rate of walking that is voluntarily assumed
  99. prerequisites of gait
    • maintenance of the position of the head, arms and trunk against gravity(75% of total body weight)
    • maintenance of upright posture and balance
    • control of foot movement for safe ground clearance and gentle heel contact
  100. gait (info, not def)
    • controlled by the central nervous system postural (reflex activity)
    • major afferent stimuli is provided by: tactile impulses from the sole of the foot
    • proprioceptive impulses (from the lower limb, trunk and neck)
  101. essentials of normal gait (3)
    • the body can stand upright and bear the weight evenly on both lower limbs
    • the body can alternately maintain weight on one limb while bringing the other limb foward
    • the movements necessary for walking are present and coordinated (such as movements of trunk and arms)
  102. sub-phases of stance
    • initial contact
    • mid-stance
    • foot off/push off
  103. stance phase (info)
    • begins at the time that one extremity contacts the ground (initial contact) and continues as long as some portion of the same foot is in contact with the ground
    • ends when the reference foot lifts off the ground (foot off/push off)
    • weight bearing phase
    • provides stability of the gait
    • necessary for accurate swing phase to take place
  104. stages of stance phase (5)
    • initial contact
    • loading response
    • midstance
    • terminal stance
    • pre-swing
  105. initial contact stage
    • position of double support
    • the initial contact of the leading stance foot and the toes of the other foot are both on the ground
  106. loading response stage
    • weight is transfered onto the outstretched limb
    • the first period of double support
  107. mid-stance stage
    • defined as the time the opposite limb leaves the floor until the body weight is aligned over the forefoot
    • body progresses over a single, stable limb
  108. terminal stance stage
    • the heel is raised as the body moves forward over the stance limb
    • the body moves ahead of the limb
  109. pre-swing stage
    • the second (and final) double support stance period
    • defined from the time of initial contact of the contralateral limb to ipsilateral toe-off
    • unloading the limb occurs as weight is transferred to the contralateral limb
  110. swing phase stages (3)
    • pre-swing
    • mid-swing
    • terminal swing

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