BIO205 CH9

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karlap
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202323
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BIO205 CH9
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2013-02-23 02:37:25
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BIO205 CH9
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BIO205 CH9
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  1. Know the terms in table 9.1
    antiseptic
    aseptic
    -cide, -cidal
    digerming
    pasteurization
    sanitization
    -stasis, -static
    sterilization
  2. How do antimicrobial agents work?
    • Damage cells walls
    • damage cytoplasmic membrane 
    • damage to proteins & nucleic acids
    • fatal mutations
  3. describe 3 factors that affect antimicrobial efficacy
    • site to be treated
    • relative susceptibility of microbes
  4. describe physical methods of microbial control:
    moist heat- boiling, autoclaving, and pasteurization
    • more effective than dry heat
    • boiling- kills vegetative cells of bacteria and fungi
    • autoclaving- steam under pressure to get higher temperature
    • pasteurization- kills pathogens in milk, ice cream, yogurt, fruit juice
  5. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    dry heat
    increase temperature for long periods used for powder, oils and objects that are damaged by moisture
  6. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    refrigeration and freezing
    slows microbial metabolism, growth and reproduction
  7. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    Dessication and lyophilization
    drying to preserve food
  8. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    filtration
    passage of liquid or gas through a sieve to trap microbes
  9. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    osmotic pressure
    • ancient method to preserve food.
    • Increase concentration of salt and sugar 
    • cells desiccate
  10. describe physical methods of microbial control;
    radiation
    • electron beam- surface
    • ionizing- sterilize meat, spices
    • Gamma rays- penetrate better but take hours
    • UV- healthcare doesn't penetrate well
  11. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    Phenol and phenolics
    May have halogens or other functional groups, intermediate low level
  12. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including;
    Alcohols
    • intermediate
    • Denature proteins and disrupt cell membranes
    • remain active on surfaces
    • bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal against enveloped viruses- not effective on spores
  13. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:;
    Halogens
    • intermediate
    • Iodine, chlorine, bromine, fluorine
    • effective against vegetative bacterial and fungal cells, fungal spores, some endospores, protozoan cyst and many viruses
  14. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:;
    Oxidizing agents
    • High level
    • peroxides, ozones, peracetic acid
    • oxidize enzymes and prevents metabolism
    • Hydrogen peroxide- sterilize
  15. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    surfactants
    • soaps and detergents
    • degerming agents, poor microbial agents
  16. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    Heavy metals
    • low level
    • denature proteins, silver nitrate in newborns eyes to prevent neissena
    • silver in surgical dressings
  17. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    Aldehydes
    cross-link proteins- denature them and inactivate nucleic acids
  18. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    Gaseous agents
    • rapidly penetrate paper and plastic warps into every crack
    • denature proteins by cross-linking proteins
  19. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    enzymes
    • Human tears contain lysozyme- digest peptidoglycan cell wall
    • used for food processors to reduce the number of bacteria in cheese
  20. Describe the chemical methods of microbial control including:
    Antibiotic/ semisynthetics/ synthetics
    • antibiotics- produced by microbes naturally
    • semisynthetics- chemically altered antibiotics
    • synthetics- wholly manmade

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