Foundations of Management Ch 14 - Communication
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What is communication?
It's the process of sending and receiving symbols with meanings attached.
What is effective communication?
It's when the intended meaning of the source and the perceived meaning of the receiver are identical
What is the main trait of effective communication?
It occurs at minimum cost
What is noise?
Anything that interferes with communication effectiveness
What is a communication channel?
The medium through which a message is sent
Where does nonverbal communication take place?
It takes place through gestures and body language
How does a mixed message come about?
When words communicate one message while actions body language, or appearance communicate something else.
What is filtering?
The intentional distortion of information to make it appear most favorable to the recipient
What is perception?
The process through which people receive, organize, and interpret information from the environment.
What is a stereotype?
It's when attributes commonly associated with a group are assigned to an individual
What is the halo effect?
One attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation
What is selective perception?
The tendency to define problems from one's own point of view
What is projection?
Assigning personal attributes to other individuals
What benefit is gained from active listening?
This helps the source of a message say what he or she really means
What is feedback?
It's the process of telling someone else how you feel about something that person did or said
How should someone give feedback?
- Use feelings
- Be specific
- Pick the right time
- Make sure the receiver can actually do something about it
- Give in small doses
What is management by wandering around (MBWA)?
Workers at all levels talk with bosses about a variety of work-related matters
What is 360 degree feedback?
It involves upward appraisals from subordinates as well as additional feedback from peers, internal and external customers, and higher managers
What is proxemics?
The use of interpersonal space
What is ethnocentrism?
the tendency to consider one's culture superior to others
What is a conflict?
A disagreement over issues of substance and/or an emotional antagonism
What is conflict resolution?
The removal of substantial and/or emotional reasons for a conflict
What is avoidance?
Pretending the conflict doesn't exist
What is accommodation?
Playing down differences to avoid conflict
What is competition/
The use of force or superior skill to "win" a conflict
What is a compromise?
When each party gives up something of value to the other
What is collaboration?
Involves working out differences and solving problems so everyone wins
What is negotiation?
The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have difference preferences
What is distributive negotiation?
This focuses on win-lose claims made by each party.
What is principled negotiation?
When a negotiation focuses on a win-win orientation to reach solutions acceptable to each party
What is mediation?
What a neutral third party tries to improve communication between negotiating parties.
What is arbitration?
When a neutral third party, the arbitrator, who acts as a "judge", issues a binding decision.
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