Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
2013-02-21 19:46:15
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Environmental Health and Safety
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  1. environmental health
    the study and management of environmental conditions that affect the health and well-being of humans
  2. environmental hazards
    factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease, or death
  3. air pollution
    contamination of the air that interferes with the comfort, safety, and health of living organisms
  4. primary polluntants
    air pollutants emanating directly from transportation, power and industrial plants, and refineries
  5. secondary pollutants
    air pollutants formed when primary air pollutants react with sunlight and other atmospheric components to form new harmful compounds
  6. photochemical smog
    smog formed when air pollutants interact with sunlight
  7. industrial smog
    smog formed primarily by sulfur dioxide and suspended particles from the burning of coal, also know as gray smog
  8. ozone
    O3, an inorganic molecule considered to be a pollutant in the atmosphere because it harms human tissue, but considered beneficial in the stratosphere because it screens out UV radiation
  9. thermal inversion
    a condition that occurs when warm air traps cooler air at the surface of the earth
  10. Clean Air Act (CAA)
    the federal law that provides the government with authority to address interstate air pollution
  11. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
    standards created by the EPA for allowable concentration levels of outdoor air pollutants
  12. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    the federal agency primarily responsible for setting, maintaining, and enforcing environmental standards
  13. criteria pollutants
    the most pervasive air pollutants and those of greatest concern in the United States
  14. Air Quality Index (AQI)
    an index that indicates the level of pollution in the air and the associated health risk
  15. greenhouse gases
    atmosphere gases, principally carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide  that are transparent to visible light but absorb infrared radiation
  16. asbestos
    a naturally occurring mineral fiber that has been identified as a Class A carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency
  17. biogenic pollutants
    airborne biological organisms or their particles or gases or other toxic materials that can produce illness
  18. combustion by-products
    gases and particulates generated by burning
  19. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    compounds that exist as vapors over the normal range of air pressures and temperatures
  20. formaldehyde
    a water-soluble gas used in aqueous solutions in hundreds of consumer products
  21. carcinogens
    agents, usually chemicals, that cause cancer
  22. radon
    a naturally occurring colorless, tasteless, odorless, radioactive gas formed during the radioactive decay of uranium-238
  23. environmental tobacco smoke
    tobacco smoke in the environment that can be inhaled by nonsmokers
  24. secondhand smoke
    environmental tobacco smoke
  25. mainstream smoke
    tobacco smoke inhaled and exhaled by the smoker
  26. sidestream tobacco smoke
    tobacco smoke that comes off the end of burning tobacco products
  27. passive smoking
    the inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke by nonsmokers
  28. sick building syndrome
    a term to describe a situation in which the air quality in a building produces generalized signs and symptoms of ill health in the buildings occupants
  29. sanitation
    the practice of establishing and maintaining healthy or hygienic conditions in the environment
  30. surface water
    precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation; the water in streams, rivers, and lakes
  31. groundwater
    water located under the surface of the ground
  32. aquifers
    porous, water saturated layers of underground bedrock, sand, and gravel that can yield economically significant amounts of water
  33. water pollution
    any physical or chemical change in water that can harm living organisms or make the water unfit for other uses
  34. point source pollution
    pollution that can be traced to a single identifiable source
  35. nonpoint source pollution
    all pollution that occurs through the runoff, seepage, or falling of pollutants into the water
  36. runoff
    water that flows over land surfaces (including paved surfaces), typically from precipitation
  37. waterborne disease outbreak (WBDO)
    a disease in which at least two persons experience a similar illness after the ingestion of drinking water or after exposure to water used for recreational purposes and epidemiological evidence implicates water as the probable source of the illness
  38. endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC)
    a chemical that interferes in some way with the body's endocrine (hormone) system
  39. pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)
    synthetic chemicals found in everyday consumer health care products and cosmetics
  40. wastewater
    the aqueous mixture that remains after water has been used or contaminated by humans
  41. wastewater treatment
    the process of improving the quality of wastewater (sewage) to the point that it can be released into a body of water without seriously disrupting the aquatic environment, causing health problems in humans, or causing nuisance conditions
  42. sludge
    a semiliquid mixture of solid waste that includes bacteria, viruses, organic matter, toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, and solid chemicals
  43. septic tank
    a watertight concrete or fiberglass tank that holds sewage; one of two main parts of a septic system
  44. absorption field
    the element of a septic system in which the liquid portion of waste is distributed
  45. Clean Water Act (CWA)
    the federal law aimed at ensuring that all rivers are swimmable and fishable and that limits the discharge of pollutants in U.S. waters to zero
  46. watershed
    the area of land from which all of the water that is under it or drains from it goes into the same place and drains in one point
  47. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
    the federal law that regulates the safety of public drinking water
  48. foodborne disease outbreak (FBDO)
    the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of food
  49. pest
    any organism-a multicelled animal or plant, or a microbe- that has an adverse effect on human interests
  50. pesticides
    synthetic chemicals developed and manufactured for the purpose of killing pests
  51. target organism (target pest)
    the organism (or pest) for which a pesticide is applied
  52. nontarget organisms
    all other susceptible organisms in the environment, for which a pesticide was not intended
  53. registered environmental health specialists (REHSs) (sanitarians)
    environmental workers responsible for the inspection of restaurants, retail food outlets, public housing, and other sites to ensure compliance with public health codes
  54. solid waste
    solid refuse from households, agriculture, and businesses
  55. municipal solid waste (MSW)
    waste generated by individual households, businesses, and institutions located within municipalities
  56. hazardous waste
    a solid waste or combination of solid wastes that is dangerous to human health or the environment
  57. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)
    the federal law that sets forth guidelines for the proper handling and disposal of hazardous wastes
  58. solid waste management (integrated waste management)
    the collection, transportation, and disposal of solid waste
  59. source reduction
    a waste management approach involving the reduction or elimination of the use of materials that produce an accumulation of solid waste
  60. recycling
    the collecting, sorting, and processing of materials that would otherwise be considered waste
  61. composting
    the natural, aerobic biodegradation of organic plant and animal matter to compost
  62. sanitary landfills
    waste disposal sites on land suited for this purpose and on which waste is spread in thin layers, compacted, and covered with a fresh layer of clay or plastic foam each day
  63. leachates
    liquids created when water mixes with wastes and removes soluble constituents from them by percolation
  64. combustion (incineration)
    the burning of solid wastes
  65. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
    the federal law (known as the Superfund) created to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites
  66. brownfields
    property where reuse is complicated by the presence of hazardous substances from prior use
  67. lead
    a naturally occurring mineral element found throughout the environment and used in large quantities for industrial products, including batteries, pipes, solder, paints, and pigments
  68. vector
    a living organism, usually an insect or other arthropod, that can transmit a communicable disease agent to a susceptible host (e.g., a mosquito or tick)
  69. vectorborne disease outbreak (VBDO)
    an occurrence of an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease caused by an agent transmitted by insects or other arthropods
  70. natural hazard
    naturally occurring phenomenon or event that produces or releases energy in amounts that exceed human endurance, causing injury, disease, or death
  71. radiation
    a process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves
  72. ionizing radiation
    high-energy radiation that can knock an electron out of orbit, creating an ion, and can thereby damage living cells and tissues
  73. ultraviolet (UV) radiation
    radiation energy with wavelengths 0-400 nanometers
  74. natural disaster
    a natural hazard that results in substantial loss of life or property
  75. carrying capacity
    the maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period of time
  76. bias and hate crimes
    crimes that occur when offenders choose a victim because of some characteristic
  77. terroism
    calculated use of violence against civilians to attain goals that are political or religious in nature
  78. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    the nation's official emergency response agency
  79. American Red Cross
    a nonprofit, humanitarian organization led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter that provides relief to victims of disasters