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  1. I.                   Destruction of the Old Regime
    One of the first acts
    • a.      One of first acts of National Assembly was to destroy relics of feudalism or aristocratic privileges
    •                                                               i.      To some deputies, this was necessary to calm peasants and restore order in countryside, although many urban bourgeois were willing to abolish feudalism as a matter of principle
    • 1.      On Aug 4, 1789: National Assembly voted to abolish seigniorial rights as well as fiscal privileges of nobles, clergy, towns, and provinces
  2. a.      The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    August 26
                                                                  i.      Aug 26: assembly provided the ideological foundation for its actions and an educational device for the nation by adopting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
  3. a.      The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    What did it state?
    • 1.      Reflected ideas of major philosophes of French Enlightenment and owed much to American Declaration of Independence and American state constitutions
    • a.      Affirmed destruction of aristocratic privileges by proclaiming an end to exemptions from taxation, freedom, and equal rights for all men, and access to public office based on talent
    • b.      Monarchy restricted and all citizens were to have right to take part in the legislative process
    • c.       Freedom of speech and press coupled with outlawing of arbitrary arrests
  4. a.      The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Important Issue
    •                                                               i.      Declaration raised another important issue
    • 1.      Many deputies insisted that it did, at least in terms of civil liberties, provided that women don’t aspire to exercise political rights and functions
  5. a.      The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Olympe de Gouges
    • a.      Olympe de Gouges, a playwright and pamphleteer, refused to accept this exclusion of women from political rights
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Echoing words of declaration, she penned a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in which she insisted that women should have all the same rights as men
    • National Assembly ignored her demands
  6. a.      The Women’s March to Versailles
    Louis XVI
    •                                                               i.      Louis XVI remained inactive at Versailles
    • 1.      He refused to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism and the declaration of rights, but an unexpected turn of events soon forced the king to change his mind
  7. a.      The Women’s March to Versailles
    Oct 5
    a.      On Oct 5, after marching to the Hotel de Ville, the city hall, to demand bread, crowds of Parisian women numbering in the thousands set off for Versailles to confront the king and the National Assembly
  8. a.      The Women’s March to Versailles
    After meeting
    •                                                               i.      After meeting with a delegation of these women, who described children’s starvation for lack of bread, Louis XVI promised them grain supplies for Paris, thinking it would end their protest
    • 1.      Women’s action forced Paris National Guard under Lafayette to follow their lead and march on Versailles
    • a.      Crowd insisted that the royal family return to Paris
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      On Oct 6, he complied, bringing along wagonloads of flour
    • 1.      All were escorted by women armed with pikes
  9. a.      The Women’s March to Versailles
    King's accemptance
    • a.      King now accepted National Assembly’s decrees; it wasn’t the first nor last occasion when Parisian crowds would affect national politics
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      The king was a prisoner in Paris, and the National Assembly, now meeting in Paris, would also feel the influence of Parisian insurrectionary politics 
  10. The Catholic Church
    •                                                               i.      Important pillar of old order and felt impact of reform
    • 1.      Due to need of money, most lands of church confiscated, and assignats, a form of paper money, were issued based on collateral of newly nationalized church property
  11. The Catholic Church
    • 1.      New Civil Constitution of the Clergy into effect
    • a.      Both bishops and priests of Catholic Church elected by people and paid by state
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Clergy required to swear oath of allegiance to Civil Constitution
  12. The Catholic Church
    Pope forbids
    • 1.      Since pope forbade it, only 54% of French parish clergy took oath, and many bishops refused
    • a.      Critical because Church, still an important institution in life of French, was enemy of Revolution
  13. The Catholic Church
    Oath viewed as...
    a.      Viewed as serious tactical blunder on part of the National Assembly, for by arousing the opposition of the church, it gave counterrevolution a popular base from which to operate
  14. A New Constitution
    •                                                               i.      1791: National Assembly completed a new constitution that established a limited constitutional monarchy
    • 1.      Still monarch, but he enjoyed few powers not reviewed by new Legislative Assembly
    • a.      The assembly, in which sovereign power was vested, was to sit for two years and consisted of 745 representatives chosen by indirect system of election that preserved power in hands of more affluent members of society
  15. A New Constitution
    Distinction between active and passive citizens
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Distinction between active and passive citizens
    • 1.      Same civil rights, but only active (men over 25 paying taxes equal to three days unskilled labor) could vote= 4.3 million people
    • a.      Active did not elect members of Legislative Assembly directly but voted for electors (men paying taxes equal to 10 days labor)
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      This small group of 50,000 electors chose deputies
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      To qualify s deputy, one had to pay a “silver mark” in taxes, equivalent to 54 days’ labor
  16. A New Constitution
    National Assembly and restructure
    • 1.      National Assembly undertook administrative restructuring of France
    • a.      1789: it abolished all old local and provincial divisions and divided France into 83 departments, roughly equal in size and population
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Departments divided into districts and communes, all supervised by elected councils and officials who oversaw financial, administrative, judicial, and ecclesiastical institutions within their domains
  17. A New Constitution
    1.      Although both bourgeois and aristocrats eligible for offices based on property qualifications, few nobles were elected, leaving local and departmental governments in the hands of the bourgeoisie, especially lawyers
  18. Opposition from Within
                                                                  i.      1791: France moved into reordering of the old regime that had been achieved by revolutionary consensus that was largely the work of the wealthier members of the bourgeoisie
  19. Opposition from Within
    Mid 1791
    1.      Mid 1791: this consensus faced growing opposition from clerics angered by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, lower classes hurt by rise in cost of living resulting from inflation of assignatas, peasants who remained opposed to dues that had still not been abandoned, and political clubs offering more radical solutions to nation’s problems
  20. Opposition from Within
    • a.      Most famous club were Jacobins, who first emerged as gathering of more radical deputies at beginning of Revolution, especially during events of August 4, 1789
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      After October 1789, they occupied the former Jacobin convent in Paris
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      They also formed in the provinces, where they served as discussion groups
  21. Opposition from Within
    Jacobins, eventually ...
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Eventually, they joined together in extensive correspondence network and by spring 1790 were seeking affiliation with Parisian club
    • 1.      One year later, there were 900 Jacobin clubs in France associated with Parisian center
    • a.      Members were elite of their local societies, but they also included artisans and tradespeople
  22. Opposition from Within
    Mid-1791 trouble
    •                                                               i.      Miid-1791: government facing financial difficulties due to massive tax evasion
    • 1.      Despite problems, the bourgeois politicians in charge remained unified on basis of their trust in the king
    • a.      Louis XVI undercut them and tried to flee France in June 1791 and succeeded before being recognized, captured at Varaennes, and brought back to Paris
  23. Opposition from Within
    After king is forced to return
                                                                                                                                          i.      Though radicals called for the king to be deposed, the members of the National Assembly, fearful of the popular forces in Paris calling for a republic, chose to ignore the king’s flight and pretended he’d been kidnappedà new Legislative Assembly held first session in October 1791
  24. Opposition from Within
    "self denying ordinance"
    •                                                               i.      Because National Assembly passed a “self-denying ordinance” that prohibited the reelection of its members, the composition of the Legislative Assembly tended to be quite different from that of the national Assembly
    • 1.      Clerics and nobles= gone
    • 2.      Most reps= men of property (esp. lawyers)
  25. Opposition from Within
    Although lacking experience, how did the reps gain experience?
    • a.      Although lacking national reputations, most gained experience in new revolutionary politics and prominence in their local areas through the National Guard, the Jacobin clubs, and the many elective offices spawned by the administrative reordering of France
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      King tired to cooperate with new Legislative Assembly, but France’s relations with rest of Europeà Louis’ downfall
  26. Opposition from Broad
    French example
    •                                                               i.      French example= fear of revolution in other countries
    • 1.      Aug 27, 1791: Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued Declaration of Pillnitz, which invited other European monarchs to take most effect means and put king of France in state to strengthen
    • a.      But European monarchs too suspicious of each other to undertake plan and French enthusiasm for war led Legislative Assembly to declare war on Austria on April 20, 1792
  27. Opposition from Abroad
    Views of war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many French wanted war, hoping it would cool off Revolution
    • 1.      French defeat (likely due to army’s disintegration), might lead to restoration of old regime
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Leftists hoped that war would consolidate Revolution at home and spread it to Europe
  28. Opposition from Abroad
    Bad fighting
    • 1.      French invaded Austrian Netherlands and were routed; Paris feared invasion
    • a.      If Austrians and Prussians cooperated, they could have seized Paris
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Alarmed by turn of events, the Legislative Assembly called for 20,000 National Guardsmen from provinces to come and defend Paris
  29. Opposition from Abroad
    •                                                               i.      fears of invasion grew, scapegoats originated
    • 1.      Defeats in war coupled with economic shortages in spring reinvigorated popular groups that had been dormant since previous summer and led to renewed political demonstrations, especially against the king
  30. Opposition from Abroad
    Radical Parisian political groups
    a.      Radical Parisian political groups, declaring selves an insurrectionary commune, organized a mob attack on the royal palace and Legislative Assembly in August 1792, took the king captive, and forced the Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarchy and call for a national convention, chosen on the basis of universal male suffrage, to decide on the future form of government
  31. Opposition from Abroad
    French revolution- more radical stage
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      French Revolution was about to enter a more radical stage as power passed from assembly to new Paris Commune, composed of many people called the sans-culottes, ordinary patriots without fine clothes
    • 1.      Many sans-culottes were merchants and better-off artisans who were the elite of their neighborhoods and trades
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2013-02-22 00:26:02
HON 122 Test Two

Hour Quiz II
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