19.3.4 Pt. 1

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19.3.4 Pt. 1
2013-02-21 20:37:26
HON 122 Test Two

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  1. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Paris Commune
    • a.      Before the National Convention met, the Paris commune dominated
    •                                                               i.      Led by new minister of justice, Georges Danton, the sans-culottes sought revenge on those who aided king and resisted popular will
  2. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Fears of treachery
    •                                                               i.      Fears of treachery intensified due to Prussian army advance on Paris
    • Thousands of presumed traitors arrested and massacred as ordinary Parisian tradespeople and artisans solved the problem of overcrowded prisons by mass executions of their inmates
  3. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    September 1792
    • a.      September 1792: newly elected National Convention began its sessions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Although called to draft new constitution, it acted as sovereign ruling body of France
  4. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    • a.      Socially, the composition of the National Convention similar to predecessors
    •                                                               i.      Dominated by lawyers, professionals, and property owners, as well as artisans
    • 1.      2/3 deputies under 45 and all had political experience from Revolution
    • a.      Almost all distrusted king and first, wanted to abolish monarchy and establish a republic
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Only agreementà National Convention split into factions over fate of king
    • 1.      Girondins and Mountain both members of Jacobin club
  5. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Domestic Crises
    1.      Represented provinces and feared radical mobs in Paris and disposed to keep king alive as hedge against future eventualities
  6. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    • 1.      Represented interests of city of Paris and got strength from radical and popular elements in the city, although members of Mountain themselves were middle class
    • 2.      Won out at beginning of 1793 when National Convention found the king guilty of treason and sentenced him to deathà king executed and destruction of old regime completeà no turning back
    • a.      Executionà challenges through new enemies for Revolution at home and abroad, while strengthening those already its enemies
  7. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Factional disputes between Girondins and Mountain
    • 1.      In Paris, local government controlled by Commune, which drew a number of its leaders from the city’s artisans and shopkeepers
    • a.      Commune favored radical change and put constant pressure on the National Convention, pushing it to ever more radical positions
  8. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Factional Disputes--> End of May and beginning of June 1793
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      End of May and beginning of June 1793: Commune organized a demonstration, invaded the National Convention, and forced the arrest and execution of the leading Girondins, leaving Mountain in control of convention
    • 1.      National Convention itself didn’t rule all of France
  9. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Foreign crisis
    •                                                               i.      Domestic turmoil paralleled by foreign crisis
    • 1.      Early in 1793, after Louis XVI was executed= much of Europe vs. France, which French welcomed
    • a.      French armies began to experience reverses, and by late spring, some members of anti-French coalition poised for invasion of France
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Success would mean both Revelation and revolutionaries destroyed and old regime reestablished
  10. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    program of the National Convention
                                                                  i.      To meet these crises, the program of the National Convention became one of curbing anarchy and counterrevolution at home while attempting to win the war by vigorous mobilization of people
  11. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    Committee of Public Safety
    • 1.      To administer the government, the convention gave broad powers to an executive committee known as the Committee of Public Safety, which was dominated initially by Danton
    • a.      For next 12 months, the same 12 members were reelected and led country during domestic and foreign crises of 1793
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      One of most important members: Maximilien Robespierre
  12. I.                   The Radical Revolution
    • 1.      Lawyer who moved to Paris as member of Estates- General
    • a.      Loved politics and was dedicated to using power to benefit the people
  13. A nation in arms
    universal mobilization
    •                                                               i.      To meet foreign crisis and save Republic from its foreign enemies, the Committee of Public Safety decreed a universal mobilization of the nation on August 23, 1793
    • 1.      In less than a year, the French revolutionary government raised 650,000 man army; by September 1794, it numbered 1,169,000. 
  14. A nation in arms
    Republic's army
    • 1.      The Republic’s army—a nation in arms—was the largest ever seen in European history
    • a.      Pushed allies back across the Rhine and conquered the Austrian Netherlands
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      May 1795: anti-French coalition of 1793 breaking up
  15. A nation in arms
    •                                                               i.      Historians focused on importance of the French revolutionary army in creation of modern nationalism
    • 1.      Previously, wars had been fought between governments or ruling dynasties by relatively small armies of professional soldiers
  16. A nation in arms
    New French Army
    • a.      New French army, however, was the creation of a “people’s” government; its war= “peoples” wars
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Entire nation was to be involved in the war
    • 1.      When dynastic wars became people’s wars, warfare increased in ferocity and lack of restraint
    • a.      Although innocent civilians suffered in earlier struggles, now the carnage became appalling at times
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Wars of French revolutionà total war of modern world
  17. a.      The Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror
    •                                                               i.      To meet domestic crisis, the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety established the “Reign of Terror”
    • 1.      Revolutionary courts organized to protect Republic from internal enemies
  18. Victims of the Terror
    • a.      Victims of the Terror: raylists (Marie Antoinette) to former revolutionary Girondins, including Olympe de Gouges, the chief advocate for political rights for women, and even included thousands of peasants
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many victims= people who opposed radical activities sans-culottes
  19. Victims of the Terror statistics
    • 1.      In 9 months: 16,000 people killed by guillotine, but more like 50,000 victims
    • a.      Executions in Vendee, Lyons, Marseilles
  20. Military Force
    •                                                               i.      Military force= revolutionary armies used to bring recalcitrant cities and districts back under control of National Convention
    • 1.      Marseilles fell to revolutionary army in August
    • a.      Starving Lyons surrendered after bombardment and resistance
  21. Lyons
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Since Lyons was France’s second city after Paris and defied National Convention during time when Republic was in peril, the Committee of Public Safety decided to make example
    • 1.      April 1794: 1880 citizens of Lyons executed
    • a.      Guillotine too slowà cannon fire and grapeshot
  22. Vendee
    •                                                               i.      In Vendee, revolutionary armies brutal in defeating the rebel armies
    • 1.      After destroying one army on December 12, the commander of the revolutionary army ordered that no quarter be given
    • 2.      Terror at most destructive in Vendee
    • a.      42% death sentences during Terror passed in territories affected by vendee rebellion
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Most notorious act of violence in Nantes, where victims executed by sinking them in barges in Loire River
  23. Terror Preference
    •                                                               i.      Terror had no class preference
    • 1.      Nobles= 8% of victims
    • 2.      Middle: 25%
    • 3.      Clergy: 6%
    • 4.      Peasant and laboring class: 60%
  24. Reign of Terror to the Committee
    •                                                               i.      To Committee of Public Safety, this was only temporary
    • 1.      Once war and domestic emergency over, “the republic of virtue” would ensure, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen would be fully established
  25. Although a republci...
    • a.      Although a republic, the French government during the Terror was led by 12 men who ordered execution of people as national enemies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Rationalization: French will= sovereign; anything outside sovereign is enemy
    • 1.      Killed enemies outside the sovereign
  26. The republic of Virtue
    •                                                               i.      Along with the Terror, the Committee of Public Safety took other steps both to control France and create a new republican order and new republic citizens
    • 1.      Spring 1793: committee sent “representatives on mission” as agents of central government to all departments to explain the war emergency measures and to implement the laws dealing with the wartime emergency
  27. Committee of Public safety did what economically?
    • 1.      Committee also attempted to provide some economic controls, especially since members of more radical working class were advocating them
    • a.      It established a system of requisitioning food supplies for cities enforced by forays of revolutionary armies into the countryside
  28. The Law of the General Maximum
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The Law of the General Maximum established price controls on goods declared of first necessity, ranging from food and drink to fuel and clothing
    • 1.      Controls failed to work very well because the government lacked the machinery to enforce them