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is acute or chronic anemia worse for the pt? which will more likely need a blood transfusion?
- acute worse bc body hasn't adapted
- acute more likely to warrant blood transfusion
you find that a cow has PCV 10% but is walking and eating. Blood transfusion needed?
blood transfusion not needed unless doesn't respond to treatment of underlying condition or decompensating for some reason
How does moldy sweet clover cause bleeding disorder? will PT or PTT be prolonged first? what will platelet count be like/
- dicoumarol is vit K antagonist (affects clotting factors 2 7, 9, 10)
- PT (extrinsic pathway) is prolonged first
- plt should be normal
Of the three forms of anemia, which form is caused by Cu or Fe deficiency?
what are 3 examples of things that cause Heinz body, hemolytic anemia?
- wild onion
- Red Maple leaf
What form of anaplasma affects cattle? Are young or mature cattle affected?
- anaplasma marginale
- mature cattle
How is Anaplasma transmitted?
- ixodidae ticks (Dermacentor in US/ Boophilus in tropics)
- stable flies also (not horn flies)
- iatrogenic via reusing needles, etc.
Where does anaplasma infect the body? does this lead to intra or extravascular hemolysis?
in RBCs so trapped in spleen/liver --> *extravascular* hemolysis
How do you treat anaplasma? will this tx cure?
oxytetracycline, likely remain carrier/reservoir for infection
what is incubation period for anaplama? when do clinical signs start to show?
- 15-30 days
- at day 21 RBCs destroyed too fast to be replaced - CS begin when 50% RBCs destroyed
what test is done for anaplasma detection? better for acute or chronic infection?
ELISA (not accurate for acute-ck blood smear for acute)
Is there a vaccine for anaplasma?
- yes but not approved for use in USA
- exposing calves young allows for immunity as adult
what is a tick borne erythrocytic protozoal disease commonly found in tropics/subtropics? what is the most virulent form in cattle?
Does babesia cause intra- or extra-vascular hemolysis? what CNS signs are associated?
- intravascular hemolysis (escaping merozoites)
- brain anoxia (from anemia and RBCs stuck in brain capillaries)
- convulsions, hyperexcitability, opisthotonis, coma/death
Is babesia seen in young or adults? can they be reinfected or life immunity?
- adults (calves immune up to 9 mos)
- can develop long term immunity (can get sick again w/stress)
what diagnostic test is used for acute and chronic/carrier states?
- acute: Giemsa stain on blood smear
- carrier: ELISA, complement fixation, IFAT
Prognosis for babesia is poor if you find what? what is treatment option?
- hemoglobinuria = poor prognosis
- Tx: imidocarb or diminazine aceturate
is there a vaccine for babesia?
- yes, given to young
- if given to old then also tx w/imidocarb
mycoplasma haemolamea affects what species? where does it live in the body?
- camelid disease
- epicellular/outer edge of RBCs
What is severity of disease with mycoplasma?
often asymptomatic, resides dormant in spleen til stressed --> anemia/death
what is diagnostic test of choice for mycoplasma?
- (can also try blood smear but difficult to identify)
what is treatment for mycoplasma? will it clear infection?
- often still remain carrier
bacillary hemoglobinuria is an acute hemolytic disorder caused by what? Is hemolysis intra- or extra-vascular?
- clostridium haemolyticum (begins after liver fluke migration)
- intravascular ("red water")
Camelids who ingest red maple leaf can form what that is concerning to the clinician?
- (will also get reduced glutathione, and elevated liver enzymes)
what in the red maple leaf is responsible for the oxidative damage/heinz body formation? How do you treat this toxicity?
- gallic acid is strong oxidant
- no antidote for red maple leaf toxicity; remove source/supportive
- Vit C. and antioxidant; fluids to diurese kidneys of methemoglobin
what is osmolality and sodium level in patient with water intoxication? What about SG?
does water intoxication lead to intra- or extra-vascular hemolysis?
intravascular (neuro signs may develop also)
will water toxicity patients benefit from hypertonic saline?
yes (and mannitol to help reduce neuro signs)
does post-parturiant hemoglobinuria lead to intra- and extra-vascular hemolysis? what is phosphorus level like?
- intravascular hemolysis
- low phosphorous
what 2 other minerals affect copper levels? what is copper important for in the body?
- molybdenum and sulfur (S reduces Mo absorption --> Cu tox)
- collagen and proper immune function
is copper toxicity usually chronic or acute? how does this change with species?
- sheep: accumulate copper in liver then acute signs
- cows: drink copper foot bath and have acute signs (esophageal erosions)
which sheep are more resistant to Cu toxicity?
what is Cu: Mo ratio in adults
6:1 (>10:1 dangerous)
In the sheep chronically accumulating Cu, when do Cu serum levels increase?
- serum level normal during accumulation period
- serum Cu incr. immediately before hemolysis (and liver enzymes incr)
why is renal failure related to Cu toxicity? what do kidneys look like on PM?
- hemoglobin toxic to kidneys/ pigment nephropathy
- "gun metal" gray/black kidneys
Samples of what is most important in diagnosis of Cu tox? Put these samples in what kind of tube?
- liver and kidney
- royal blue top (NOT red) or sterile milk culture tube ok
Will liver biopsy render normal results before, during, or after hemolytic crisis from Cu toxicity?
normal liver biopsy during hemolytic crisis (but serum levels high during this time)
when does hemolysis occur in relation to acute Cu toxicity crisis?
- hematologic changes up to 24 hours before crisis (can be normal again 4 days after crisis)
- hepatic enzymes elevate also
which liver enzyme will remain elevated long after hemolytic crisis from Cu toxicity?
GGT for up to 700 days
what is treatment for hemolytic crisis associated with Cu toxicity? Then what after crisis is over?
- quiet environment + O2 + transfusion if PCV <8% + Vit C/E (antioxidants)
- after crisis: continue tx for weeks/months w/chelation therapy - Ammonium molybdate or Na thiosulfate
Depression anemias are usually normocytic/normochromic, except in what circumstances?
- Cu or Fe deficiency (microcytic/hypochromic)
- (these are chronic/prolonged/severe before specific signs appear)
what is the most useful diagnostic tool when evaluating depression anemias?
bone marrow evaluation
what are some common causes of iron deficiency anemia?
- piglets born this way
- fail to consume colostrum (Fe rich)
- veal on milk only diet
- GI bleeding/ulcer
What does "Swayback" or "Enzootic Ataxia" refer to?
sheep with depression anemia that results in demyelinating syndrome
what are some common clinical signs seen in calves with Cu deficiency anemia?
- rough/depigmented hair coat
- lack of wt gain
What is the reportable/zoonotic gram positive rod, forms spores, and can cause sudden death in up to 90% affected?
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax; aka: woolsorter's disease; splenic fever)
What are the virulence factors for anthrax?
- protective antigen
- edema antigen
- lethal factor
what factors enhance spore formation for anthrax?
- high Ca and Mg in soil
- elevated pH of soil
- (also affected disease: heavy rain after drought/blood transfer from insects)
is there a vaccine for anthrax?
yes for endemic areas but state vet will need to be involved
what is causative agent for caseous lymphadenitis? what species is it a year round problem for?
- corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
- sheep/goats (only seasonal in cattle)
what exotoxin can we test for if we suspect an enlarged lymph node is due to CLA?
What are the two forms of CLA? How is CLA transmitted?
- external and internal
- draining exudates are contagious
with external form, which lymph nodes are most commonly affected?
why is bloat a concern with internal form of CLA?
lymph nodes in mediastinum can get large enough to compress esophagus
Which form of CLA is known as "wasting disease" or "thin ewe syndrome"?
what does CBC reveal with CLA?
leukocytosis with mature neutrophilia (should not see left shift)
What is the purpose of the Synergistic hemolysis inhibition test? what are problems with the test?
- to detect IgG response to phospholipase D (can monitor prevalence in sheep/goats and detect subclinical cases)
- depends on severity/chronicity of disease; false + if previously exposed/vaccinated
what is common treatment for CLA?
- cull to prevent spread
- (susceptible to most Abs but would have to treat too long/difficult to cure)