FA Q2, Hemolymphatic

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  1. is acute or chronic anemia worse for the pt? which will more likely need a blood transfusion?
    • acute worse bc body hasn't adapted
    • acute more likely to warrant blood transfusion
  2. you find that a cow has PCV 10% but is walking and eating. Blood transfusion needed?
    blood transfusion not needed unless doesn't respond to treatment of underlying condition or decompensating for some reason
  3. How does moldy sweet clover cause bleeding disorder? will PT or PTT be prolonged first? what will platelet count be like/
    • dicoumarol is vit K antagonist (affects clotting factors 2 7, 9, 10)
    • PT (extrinsic pathway) is prolonged first
    • plt should be normal
  4. Of the three forms of anemia, which form is caused by Cu or Fe deficiency?
  5. what are 3 examples of things that cause Heinz body, hemolytic anemia?
    • phenothiazine
    • wild onion
    • Red Maple leaf
  6. What form of anaplasma affects cattle? Are young or mature cattle affected?
    • anaplasma marginale
    • mature cattle
  7. How is Anaplasma transmitted?
    • ixodidae ticks (Dermacentor in US/ Boophilus in tropics)
    • stable flies also (not horn flies)
    • iatrogenic via reusing needles, etc.
  8. Where does anaplasma infect the body? does this lead to intra or extravascular hemolysis?
    in RBCs so trapped in spleen/liver --> *extravascular* hemolysis
  9. How do you treat anaplasma? will this tx cure?
    oxytetracycline, likely remain carrier/reservoir for infection
  10. what is incubation period for anaplama? when do clinical signs start to show?
    • 15-30 days
    • at day 21 RBCs destroyed too fast to be replaced - CS begin when 50% RBCs destroyed
  11. what test is done for anaplasma detection? better for acute or chronic infection?
    ELISA (not accurate for acute-ck blood smear for acute)
  12. Is there a vaccine for anaplasma?
    • yes but not approved for use in USA
    • exposing calves young allows for immunity as adult
  13. what is a tick borne erythrocytic protozoal disease commonly found in tropics/subtropics? what is the most virulent form in cattle?
    • babesia
    • babesia bovis
  14. Does babesia cause intra- or extra-vascular hemolysis? what CNS signs are associated?
    • intravascular hemolysis (escaping merozoites)
    • brain anoxia (from anemia and RBCs stuck in brain capillaries)
    • convulsions, hyperexcitability, opisthotonis, coma/death
  15. Is babesia seen in young or adults? can they be reinfected or life immunity?
    • adults (calves immune up to 9 mos)
    • can develop long term immunity (can get sick again w/stress)
  16. what diagnostic test is used for acute and chronic/carrier states?
    • acute: Giemsa stain on blood smear
    • carrier: ELISA, complement fixation, IFAT
  17. Prognosis for babesia is poor if you find what? what is treatment option?
    • hemoglobinuria = poor prognosis
    • Tx: imidocarb or diminazine aceturate
  18. is there a vaccine for babesia?
    • yes, given to young
    • if given to old then also tx w/imidocarb
  19. mycoplasma haemolamea affects what species? where does it live in the body?
    • camelid disease
    • epicellular/outer edge of RBCs
  20. What is severity of disease with mycoplasma?
    often asymptomatic, resides dormant in spleen til stressed --> anemia/death
  21. what is diagnostic test of choice for mycoplasma?
    • PCR
    • (can also try blood smear but difficult to identify)
  22. what is treatment for mycoplasma? will it clear infection?
    • tetracycline
    • often still remain carrier
  23. bacillary hemoglobinuria is an acute hemolytic disorder caused by what? Is hemolysis intra- or extra-vascular?
    • clostridium haemolyticum (begins after liver fluke migration)
    • intravascular ("red water")
  24. Camelids who ingest red maple leaf can form what that is concerning to the clinician?
    • *methemoglobinemia*
    • (will also get reduced glutathione, and elevated liver enzymes)
  25. what in the red maple leaf is responsible for the oxidative damage/heinz body formation? How do you treat this toxicity?
    • gallic acid is strong oxidant
    • no antidote for red maple leaf toxicity; remove source/supportive
    • Vit C. and antioxidant; fluids to diurese kidneys of methemoglobin
  26. what is osmolality and sodium level in patient with water intoxication? What about SG?
    • hypOosmolar
    • hypOnatremia
    • hyposthenuria
  27. does water intoxication lead to intra- or extra-vascular hemolysis?
    intravascular (neuro signs may develop also)
  28. will water toxicity patients benefit from hypertonic saline?
    yes (and mannitol to help reduce neuro signs)
  29. does post-parturiant hemoglobinuria lead to intra- and extra-vascular hemolysis? what is phosphorus level like?
    • intravascular hemolysis
    • low phosphorous
  30. what 2 other minerals affect copper levels? what is copper important for in the body?
    • molybdenum and sulfur (S reduces Mo absorption --> Cu tox)
    • collagen and proper immune function
  31. is copper toxicity usually chronic or acute? how does this change with species?
    • sheep: accumulate copper in liver then acute signs
    • cows: drink copper foot bath and have acute signs (esophageal erosions)
  32. which sheep are more resistant to Cu toxicity?
    merino sheep
  33. what is Cu: Mo ratio in adults
    6:1 (>10:1 dangerous)
  34. In the sheep chronically accumulating Cu, when do Cu serum levels increase?
    • serum level normal during accumulation period
    • serum Cu incr. immediately before hemolysis (and liver enzymes incr)
  35. why is renal failure related to Cu toxicity? what do kidneys look like on PM?
    • hemoglobin toxic to kidneys/ pigment nephropathy
    • "gun metal" gray/black kidneys
  36. Samples of what is most important in diagnosis of Cu tox? Put these samples in what kind of tube?
    • liver and kidney
    • royal blue top (NOT red) or sterile milk culture tube ok
  37. Will liver biopsy render normal results before, during, or after hemolytic crisis from Cu toxicity?
    normal liver biopsy during hemolytic crisis (but serum levels high during this time)
  38. when does hemolysis occur in relation to acute Cu toxicity crisis?
    • hematologic changes up to 24 hours before crisis (can be normal again 4 days after crisis)
    • hepatic enzymes elevate also
  39. which liver enzyme will remain elevated long after hemolytic crisis from Cu toxicity?
    GGT for up to 700 days
  40. what is treatment for hemolytic crisis associated with Cu toxicity? Then what after crisis is over?
    • quiet environment + O2 + transfusion if PCV <8% + Vit C/E (antioxidants)
    • after crisis: continue tx for weeks/months w/chelation therapy - Ammonium molybdate or Na thiosulfate
  41. Depression anemias are usually normocytic/normochromic, except in what circumstances?
    • Cu or Fe deficiency (microcytic/hypochromic)
    • (these are chronic/prolonged/severe before specific signs appear)
  42. what is the most useful diagnostic tool when evaluating depression anemias?
    bone marrow evaluation
  43. what are some common causes of iron deficiency anemia?
    • piglets born this way
    • fail to consume colostrum (Fe rich)
    • veal on milk only diet
    • GI bleeding/ulcer
  44. What does "Swayback" or "Enzootic Ataxia" refer to?
    sheep with depression anemia that results in demyelinating syndrome
  45. what are some common clinical signs seen in calves with Cu deficiency anemia?
    • osteoporosis
    • rough/depigmented hair coat
    • lack of wt gain
    • diarrhea
  46. What is the reportable/zoonotic gram positive rod, forms spores, and can cause sudden death in up to 90% affected?
    Bacillus anthracis (anthrax; aka: woolsorter's disease; splenic fever)
  47. What are the virulence factors for anthrax?
    • capsule
    • protective antigen
    • edema antigen
    • lethal factor
  48. what factors enhance spore formation for anthrax?
    • high Ca and Mg in soil
    • elevated pH of soil
    • (also affected disease: heavy rain after drought/blood transfer from insects)
  49. is there a vaccine for anthrax?
    yes for endemic areas but state vet will need to be involved
  50. what is causative agent for caseous lymphadenitis? what species is it a year round problem for?
    • corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
    • sheep/goats (only seasonal in cattle)
  51. what exotoxin can we test for if we suspect an enlarged lymph node is due to CLA?
    phospholipase D
  52. What are the two forms of CLA? How is CLA transmitted?
    • external and internal
    • draining exudates are contagious
  53. with external form, which lymph nodes are most commonly affected?
    • prescapular
    • parotid
    • mandibular
  54. why is bloat a concern with internal form of CLA?
    lymph nodes in mediastinum can get large enough to compress esophagus
  55. Which form of CLA is known as "wasting disease" or "thin ewe syndrome"?
    internal form
  56. what does CBC reveal with CLA?
    leukocytosis with mature neutrophilia (should not see left shift)
  57. What is the purpose of the Synergistic hemolysis inhibition test? what are problems with the test?
    • to detect IgG response to phospholipase D (can monitor prevalence in sheep/goats and detect subclinical cases)
    • depends on severity/chronicity of disease; false + if previously exposed/vaccinated
  58. what is common treatment for CLA?
    • cull to prevent spread
    • (susceptible to most Abs but would have to treat too long/difficult to cure)
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FA Q2, Hemolymphatic
2013-02-23 02:31:27
FA Q2 Hemolymphatic

FA Q2, Hemolymphatic
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