GI Tract 1 and 2

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Author:
jcu1
ID:
202411
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GI Tract 1 and 2
Updated:
2013-02-22 02:16:22
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GI exam
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Exam 1
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  1. peristalsis
    contractions for forward movement
  2. segmentation
    contractions for mixing
  3. peritoneum (what is it and what are the three parts of it)
    double membrane that surrounds the GI organs

    • parietal - next to the body cavity
    • visceral - next to the organs
    • peritonial cavity - space between the membrane
  4. Ascites
    accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity - abdominal swelling because of increased venous pressure
  5. mesentery
    fused double layer of peritoneum membranes that hold the GI organs in place (prevents kinks and twists during peristalsis)

    sight of blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves
  6. causes of peritonitis
    • burst appendix
    • piercing wound to abdomen
    • perforating ulcer
  7. what is a perforating ulcer?
    when gastric juices leak into the peritoneal cavity
  8. hepatic portal vein
    empties into the hepatic portal system
  9. major veins that lead to the hepatic portal vein
    • inferior mesenteric vein
    • superior mesenteric vein
    • splenic vein
    • gastic vein
  10. inferior mesenteric vein comes from
    drains distal part of large intestine and rectum
  11. superior mesenteric vein comes from
    • stomach
    • small intestines
    • ascending and transverse regions of large intestine
  12. splenic vein comes from
    • spleen
    • stomach
    • pancreas
  13. gastric vein comes from
    • stomach
    • esophagus
  14. venous blood from hepatic portal system empties into:
    hepatic veins
  15. varices
    distension and bulging in the esophageal wall caused by the pooling of blood in the esophageal veins in the case of portal htn
  16. major functions of the mucosa
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • protection
  17. parts of GIT that have stratified squamous epithelium
    • oral cavity
    • pharynx
    • esophagous
  18. parts of the GIT that have simple columnar epithelium
    • stomach
    • small and large intestines
  19. function of mucus/goblet cells
    produce mucin that mixes with water to from mucous secretions --> protects GI wall from enzymes and HCl and lubricates
  20. function of enteroendocrine (endocrine) cells
    secrete hormones that control digestion
  21. function of exocrine cells
    secrete digestive juices
  22. function of epithelial cells
    absorption
  23. what do radiation and anticancer drugs do to the epithelium
    inhibit mitosis --> epithelial layer renewal is inhibited --> probs in nutrient absorption and exposure of the lamina propia to digestive enzymes which can cause bleeding
  24. lamina propia contains
    • connective tissue (collagen and elastins)
    • lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels
    • sensory nerve endings
    • capillaries
    • glands
  25. muscularis mucosa
    thin layer of smooth muscles
  26. submucosa
    • second layer from mucosal layer
    • connective tissue
    • large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
    • submucosal plexus (Meisner's plexus)
    • lymph nodes
  27. Submucosal plexus' other name
    Meisner's plexus
  28. two layers of the muscularis externa
    • circular layer (inner) - sphincters - forward movement
    • longitudinal layers
  29. what do sphincters do?
    prevent back flow and control forward movement
  30. Myneteric plexus other name
    • Auerbach's plexus
    • btwn muscle layers
    • major nerve supply to GIT
  31. serosa
    outer layer - connections
  32. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
    • pits in the mucosal layer
    • contains cells that secrete watery fluid with bicarb and mucus into the lumen

    • have
    • --stem cells that form new epithelial cells
    • --paneth cells
  33. paneth cells
    secretory, cytoplasmic granules (antibacterial proteins)
  34. gastrin stimulus, origin, target, and effect
    • stimulus: vagal stimulation, food in the stomach
    • origin: stomach
    • target: stomach
    • effect: increase production of acids and enzymes and increase gastric motility
  35. secretin stimulus, origin, target, and effect
    • stimulus: acid chyme in duodenum
    • origin: duodenum
    • target: pancreas, stomach
    • effect: inc alkaline buffer, dec acid and pepsin, dec gastric motility
  36. cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulus, origin, target, and effect
    • stimulus: acidic chyme with lipids and proteins
    • origin: duodenum
    • target: pancreas, gallbladder, duodenum, stomach
    • effect: inc pancreatic enzymes, inc  gallbladder contraction, relaxes sphincter of Oddi, dec acid and enzyme secretion and motility
  37. VIP (Vasoactive intestinal peptide) stimulus, origin, target, and effect
    • stimulus: chyme in duodenum
    • origin: duodenum
    • target: duodenal glands, stomach
    • effects: in alkaline buffer, dec acid production
  38. local mechanisms
    • released into interstitial fluid and affects local cells
    • histamine is released into lamina propia and acid is released
  39. parasympathetic and sphincters
    parasympathetic is excitatory so that the sphincters stay contracted (resting tone) and therefore closed when not swallowing
  40. where in the brain is the swallowing center
    medulla
  41. Barretts esophagus
    normal squamous epithelium replaced with simple columnar epithelium

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