19.3.4 Pt 2

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  1. The Role of WOmen
                                                                  i.      Active role in radical phase of French Revolution as spectators at sessions of revolutionary clubs and National Convention= members and deputies aware of their demands
  2. Feb 25, 1793
    •                                                               i.      Feb 25, 1793: women appealed to National Convention for lower bread prices, the convention reacted by adjourning until Tuesday
    • 1.      women responded bitterly by accosting deputies
    • a.      1793: two women—an actress and chocolate manufacture—founded Society For Revolutionary Republican Women
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Working class women who viewed self as family of sisters and vowed to defend France
  3. Male view of women
    •                                                               i.      Despite women’s importance, male revolutionaries didn’t like female participation
    • 1.      Paris Commune outlawed women’s clubs and forbade women to be present at meetings
    • 2.      Most men—radical or conservative—agreed that a woman belongs at home
  4. Dechristianization and the New Calendar
    •                                                               i.      Attempt to create new orderà pursued policy of De-Christianization
    • 1.      Saint removed from street names, churches pillaged and closed, priests encouraged to marry
    • a.      Temple of Notre-Dameà Temple of Reason
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Public ceremony for worship of reason held there
    • 1.      End of ceremony, female figure personifying Liberty rose out of temple
  5. backfire of dechristianization
    because France was still catholic; it created more enemies
  6. Adoption of new republican calendar on Oct 5, 1793
    • 1.      Years not numbered from Jesus’ birth but Sept. 22, 1792 (day French Republic was proclaimed)
    • a.      French already in year II
    • 2.      12 months with three ten-day weeks called decades with tenth day of each week a rest day (decadi)
  7. What did decades and decadi do?
    a.      This eliminated Sundays and Sunday worship services and ended ordering of French lives by Christian calendar that emphasized Sundays, saints’ days, and church holidays and festivals
  8. Religious celebrations
    • a.      Religious celebrations replaced by revolutionary festivals, especially the five days left over in calendar at end of year
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Form a half week of festivals to celebrate revolutionary virtues—Virtue, Intelligence, Labor, Opinion, and Rewards
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Sixth day in leap year was special festival when French citizens would celebrate liberty and equality
    • 1.      Ending church holidays also reduced nonworking days from 56 to 32
  9. Calendar's anti-Christian purposeqq
    • a.      Calendar’s anti-Christian purpose apparent in renaming of months
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Names that evoked seasons, temperature, or the sate of vegetation
    • b.      Faced opposition and revolutionary government relied on coercion to win its acceptance
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Even government officials ignoring it
    • 1.      Napoleon saw it was bad and abandoned it on January 1, 1806
  10. Calendar marked...
    • a.      Calendar also marked Revolution as new historical beginning, a radical break in time
    • Revolutionary upheavals project millenarian expectations, the hope that a new age dawned
  11. Revolutionary dream
    • 1.      Revolutionary dream of new order presupposed creation of new human being freed from old order and its symbols, a new citizen surrounded by framework of new habits
    • a.      Restricting time itself offered the opportunity to force new habits and create a lasting order
  12. Equality and Slavery
    •                                                               i.      Desire for equalityà ? of slavery
    • 1.      Friends of Blacks wanted abolition (achieved Sept 1791)
    • 2.      Still, French planters in West Indies profited from slaves on sugar plantations and opposed abolition
    • 3.      National Convention abolished it in colonies in Feb 4, 1794
  13. One French colony
    •                                                               i.      One French colony, slaves already rebelled
    • 1.      1791: black slaves in Saint-Domingue revolted against French plantation owners
    • a.      Attacked, killed, and burned
    • b.      White planters retaliated
  14. L'Ouverture
    • 1.      Leadership of revolt taken over by Toussaint L’ Ouverture, a son of African slaves, who seized control of all of Hispaniola by 1801
    • a.      Although Napoleon accepted the revolutionary ideal of equality, he didn’t want to deny reports of white planters that massacres by slaves showed black savageness
  15. 1802: Slavery
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1802: slavery reinstated in French West Indian coloniesà army captured L’Ouverture, who died in French dungeon
    • 1.      French soldiers weakened by disease and succumbed to slave forces
    • a.      January 1, 1804: western part of Hispaniola (Haiti) announced its freedom and was the first independent state in Latin America
  16. a.      Decline of the Committee of Public Safety
    •                                                               i.      Maintaining revolutionary ideals in France= not easy
    • 1.      Law of 14 Friaries: Committee of Public Safety sought to centralize the administration of France more effectively and to exercise greater control in order to check the excesses of the Reign of Terror
    • a.      Activities of both the representatives on mission and the revolutionary armies were scrutinized more carefully, and the campaign against Christianity dampened
  17. 1794: Committee of Public Safety
    • a.      1794: Committee of Public Safety turned against radical Parisian supporters, executed leaders of revolutionary Paris Commune, and used it
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Good for order, but alienated due to suppression of supporters
  18. French successful
    • 1.      French successful against foreign foes
    • a.      Military successes meant Terror wasn’t useless
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      It continued due to Robespierre, obsessed with purifying body politic of all the corrupt
    • Only then could Republic of Virtue follow
  19. Anti-Robespierre
    • a.      Many deputies in the National Convention feared that they were not safe while Robespierre was free to act
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Anti-Robespierre coalition in the National Convention, eager to destroy Robespierre before he destroyed them, gathered enough votes to condemn himà guillotinedà end to radical stage of French Revolution
  20. Accomplishments of the National Convention
    • 1.      National Convention and Committee of Public Safety accomplished a lot
    • a.      Created a nation in armsà preserved French Revolution and prevented it from being destroyed by foreign enemies who, if won, would’ve restored the old monarchy
    • b.      Domestically, the Revolution had been saved from forces of counterrevolution
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Committee’s tactics provided example for use of violence in domestic politics that still exists
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19.3.4 Pt 2
2013-02-22 01:45:48
HON 122 Test Two

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