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2013-02-21 20:54:14
HON 122 Test Two

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  1. Napoleon
    • a.      Napoleon (1799-1815)
    • b.      Coup that brought him to power occurred ten years after outbreak of French Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Brought Revolution to end, but also his child= Son of the Revolution
    • 1.      Brought him to power
    • a.      Napoleon said they owed him the preservation of all that was good in the revolutionary program
  2. Background of Napoleon
    • a.      Born in Corsica in 1769; son of Italian lawyer from Florentine nobility
    • b.      Studied in French school and later military school; name changed 
  3. Military education
    • a.      commission as lieutenant; not liked
    •                                                               i.      Spent much of time reading the works of philosophes, especially Rousseau, and educating himself in military matters by studying the campaigns of great military leaders from the past, including Alexander the Great, Charlemagne, and Frederick the Great
    • 1.      French Revolution and European war that followedà new opportunities
  4. Military career
    •                                                               i.      Rose quickly and became captainà artillery commander in capture of Toulonà rank of brigadier general in 1794
    • 1.      October 1795: saved National Convention from Parisian mobà promoted to major generalà hero in social circles, where he met Josephine de Beauharnais, widow of murdered general
    • a.      She lived life of luxury and Napoleon fell deeply in love with her, married her in 1796, and remained committed to her for many years, despite her affairs
  5. After his marriage
    •                                                               i.      After marriage, he was made commander of French army in Italy and turned bad soldiers into effective fighting force with victories over Austrians, dictating peace to them in 1797
    • 1.      Won over men
    • 2.      Ate and drank with soldiers and won their support and military genius 
  6. 1797
    •                                                               i.      Napoleon returned to France as a conquering hero and was given command of an army training to invade England
    • 1.      Didn’t want to invade, but strike indirectly at Britain by taking Egypt and threatening India, a source of British wealth
    • a.      British controlled seas and by 1799 had cut off supplies from Napoleon’s army in Egypt
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Napoleon abandoned army and returned to Paris, where he participated in coup d’étatà dictatorship of France (30 years old)
  7. Napoleon in control
                                                                  i.      With coup of 1799, a new form of the Republic was proclaimed with constitution that established a bicameral legislative assembly elected indirectly to reduce the role of elections
  8. Exec power in new gov
    •                                                               i.      Executive power in new government vested in hands of three consuls, although, Article 42 says the decision of the First Consul mattered
    • 1.      As Consul, Napoleon controlled entire executive authority of government
    • a.      Influence over legislature, appointed members of the bureaucracy, controlled the army, and conducted foreign affairs
  9. 1802
    • 1.      1802: Consul for life
    • a.      1804: returned France to monarchy and crowned self Emperor Napoleon Ià stabilized regime and provided permanence not possible in consulate
  10. Revolutionary era
    •                                                               i.      Revolutionary era that begun with attempt to limit arbitrary government ended with government far more autocratic than monarchy of the old regime
    • 1.      Reign progressed and demands of war increasedà rule more dictatorial