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2013-02-24 19:40:51
HON 122 Test Two

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  1. I.                   The Domestic Policies of Emperor Napoleon
    • a.      He claimed he preserved gains of Revolution for French people
    •                                                               i.      Ideal of republican liberty had been destroyed by napoleon’s thinly disguised autocracy
  2. Catholic Church
    •                                                               i.      Made peace with Church although devoid of any personal faith
    • 1.      He was a rationalist who regarded religion at most as convenience
    • a.      In Egypt, he was a Muslim
    • b.      In France, he was a Catholic
    •                                                             ii.      Peace needed to stabilize regime
    • 1.      Opened negotiations with Pope Pius VII to reestablish the Catholic Church in France
  3. Concordat
    • a.      Both sides gained from Concordat that Napoleon arranged with the pope in 1801
    •                                                               i.      Pope had right to depose French bishops, but not much control over church since state nominated bishops
    •                                                             ii.      Church permitted to hold processions and reopen seminaries
  4. Signing Concordat
    •                                                               i.      Napoleon, just by signing concordat, acknowledged the accomplishments of the Revolution
    • 1.      Moreover, pope agreed not to raise the question of the church lands confiscated during the Revolution
    • 2.      Contrary to pope’s wishes, Catholicism wasn’t reestablished as state religion; it was only recognized as major religion of French people
    • a.      Clergy paid by state, but to avoid appearance of state church, Protestant ministers were put on state payroll
  5. Result of Concordat
    •                                                               i.      the Catholic Church was no longer an enemy of the French government
    • At the same time, the agreement reassured those who had acquired church lands during the Revolution that they would not be stripped of them, an assurance that made them supporters of the Napoleonic 
  6. A New Code of Laws
    •                                                               i.      Before the Revolution, France didn’t have a single set of laws but three hundred different legal systems
    • 1.      Efforts during Revolution to codify laws for the entire nation, but it remained for Napoleon to bring the work to completion in seven codes, mostly the Civil Code
  7. New Law Code did what?
    • a.      This preserved most of revolutionary gains by recognizing principle of equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose professions, religious toleration, and abolition of serfdom and feudalism
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Property rights continued to be carefully protected, while the interests of employers were safeguarded by outlawing trade unions and strikes
  8. Civil Code
    1.      Civil Code reflected revolutionary aspirations for a uniform legal system, legal equality, and protection of property and individual s
  9. Rights of People with Civil Code
    •                                                               i.      curtailed by Civil Code
    • 1.      During radical phase, new laws made divorce easy for both man and women, restricted absolute rights of father, and allowed children (daughters too) to inherit property equally
  10. Napoleon's Civil Code
    • a.      Napoleon’s Civil Code undid most of this legislation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Control of fathers restored
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Divorce still allowed but more difficult for women to obtain
    • 1.      Wife in adultery could be divorced by husband and even imprisoned
    • 2.      Husband adulterous only if he removed mistress from house
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Women less equal in terms of marriage: husbands got control of their property
    • In lawsuits, they were treated as minors, and their testimony was less reliable than men
  11. The French Bureaucracy
    •                                                               i.      Napoleon tried to rationalize bureaucratic structure of France by developing a powerful centralized administrative machine
    • 1.      During Revolution, the National Assembly divided France into 83 departments and replaced the provincial estates, nobles, and intendants with self-governing assemblies
  12. The French Burequcracy cont.
    •                                                               i.      Kept departments but eliminated locally elected assemblies and instituted new officials, most important were prefects
    • 1.      As central government’s agents, appointed by first consul (Napoleon), the prefects were responsible for supervising all aspects of local government
    • a.      Yet, they were not local men, and their careers depended on central government
  13. Napoleon's overhaul
    •                                                               i.      As part of napoleon’s overhaul of the administrative system, tax collection became systematic and efficient
    • 1.      Taxes collected by professional collectors hired by state who dealt directly with each individual taxpayer
    • a.      No tax exemptions due to birth, status, or special arrangement granted
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Changes introduced in 1789, but in effect with Napoleon
    • 1.      1803: first consul proclaimed a balanced budget
  14. Administrative centralization
    • 1.      Administrative centralization required a bureaucracy of capable officials, and Napoleon worked hard to develop one
    • a.      Early: regime preferred experts and cared little whether expertise acquired in royal or revolutionary bureaucracies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Promotion in civil or military offices based not on rank or birth but only on demonstrated abilities
    • 1.      This was what many bourgeois wanted before Revolution
  15. New aristocracy
    • 1.      created 3263 nobles (60% military officers and remainder from upper ranks of civil service or were other state and local officials)
    • a.      socially, only 22% of Napoleon’s aristocracy came from nobility of the old regime; 60% of bourgeois origin
  16. napoleon's growing despotism
    •                                                               i.      Domestic policies: Napoleon destroyed and preserved aspects of the Revolution
    • 1.      Although equality was preserved in the law code and the opening of careers to talent, the creation of a new aristocracy, the strong protection accorded to property rights, and the use of conscription for the military make it clear that much equality had been lost
  17. napoleon's domestic policies and liberty
    • a.      Liberty replaced by initially benevolent despotism that grew arbitrary
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Napoleon shut down 60 of France’s 73 newspapers and insisted that all manuscripts be subjected to government scrutiny before they were published
    • 1.      Mail opened by government police
  18. Germaine de Stael
    • a.      One writer, Germaine de Stael, refused to accept Napoleon’s growing despotism
    •                                                               i.      Educated in Enlightenment ideas, she set up a salon in Paris that was prominent intellectual center by 1800
    • 1.      Wrote novels and political works that denounced Napoleon’s rule as tyrannical-> he banned books in France and exiled her to German statesà continued to writeà returned to Paris after overthrow of Napoleon