BIO205 CH11

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BIO205 CH11
2013-02-23 03:14:57
BIO205 CH11

BIO205 CH11
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  1. Different types of prokaryotic cells
    • Cocci
    • bacilli
    • spiral
  2. How do most prokaryotic cells reproduce?
    binary fission
  3. Name four other types of prokaryotic reproduction
    • Snaping
    • fragmentation
    • bod
    • viviparity
    • spores
  4. Can prokaryotes carry out sexual reproduction?
    asexual only
  5. 6 Arrangements of cocci
    5 arrangements of bacilli
  6. Describe endospores and know the differences in function between spores and endospores
    • Clostridium and bacillus, they form during hostile conditions
    • spores- reproductive structures produced by actinomycetes, algae and fungi
  7. Identify common features of microbes in the Domain Archea
    • Lacks peptidoglycan in cell walls
    • cell membrane have branched hydrocarbon chains
    • initial amino acids in proteins is methionine
    • reproduce by binary fission, budding, fragmentation
    • most live in moderate environments some are noted for their extreme environments
  8. Compare and contrast two kinds of extremophiles: thermophiles and halophiles
    • Thermophiles- temperature heat
    • halophiles- salt
  9. Describe the characteristics and environmental roles of methanogens
    Obligate anaerobes can convert organic wastes in pond lake and ocean sediments into methane: live in colon of animals
  10. deeply branching bacteria- Deinococcus
    • Autotrophic (use CO2 as
    • carbon source)
    • Live in hot, acidic, anaerobic environments (like early Earth)
    • Can live in intense UV radiation from sun
  11. phototrophic bacteria:
    • Oxygenic
    • photosynthesis – thought to have transformed the Earth’s anaerobic atmosphere to an oxygen-containing one
  12. Phototrophic bacteria:
    Green and purple phototrophic bacteria
    • Have bacteriochlorophylls instead of chlorophyll
    • Anoxygenic –don’t make oxygen
    • Live in anaerobic sediments rich in H2S
    • Deposit sulfur, either inside of their cells or outside
  13. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    Clostridium tetani, C. perfringes, C. botulunum, C. difficle
    • clostridia: •Rod-shaped,
    • obligate anaerobes, most of which form endospores •Clostridium
    • – important in medicine and industry
    • Produce potent toxins
    • Endospores enable them to survive disinfection and antisepsis
    • Examples are C. tetani (tetanus), C. perfringens (gangrene), C. botulinum (botulism), and C. difficile (severe diarrhea)
  14. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    • •Lack cell walls
    • •Survive without cell walls because
    • they live in osmotically protected environments, have tough cytoplasmic
    • membranes, and many contain sterols in the membrane – gives strength and
    • rigidity
    • •Tiniest of prokaryotes – 0.2-0.8 μm
    • •Cause walking pneumonia and
    • urinary tract infections
  15. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    Bacillus thuringiensis, B. polymyxin, B. anthracis, B. cereus
    • Gram-positive bacilli and cocci
    • •Bacillus
    • Endospore-forming aerobes and facultative anaerobes
    • B. thuringiensis has Bt toxin –used to kill caterpillars on crops like corn
    • B. polymyxa synthesizes the antibiotic
    • polymyxin
    • B. anthracis causes anthrax
    • B. cereus causes food poisoning from rice
  16. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    Listeria monocytogenes
    •Listeria monocytogenes (bad guy) contaminates unpasteurized milk and meat products
  17. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria
    • •Lactobacillus organisms protect the body by inhibiting growth of pathogens (good guy)
    • Also, used in industry to make yogurt, cheese, pickles, sauerkraut
  18. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    Produce human diseases (strepthroat, scarlet fever, meningitis, pneumonia, flesh-eating disease
  19. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria:
    Produce human diseases (strepthroat, scarlet fever, meningitis, pneumonia, flesh-eating disease
  20. low G+C Gram-positive bacteria
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • •Common inhabitant of humans
    • •Can cause bacteremia,
    • pneumonia, wound infections, food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome
  21. High G+C Gram positive bacteria:
    • •Reproduces by snapping fission
    • C. diphtheriae causes diphthe
  22. High G+C Gram positive bacteria:
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae
    • •Produce mycolic acids in cell walls
    • –waxy, which protects from drying
    • M. tuberculosis  and M. leprae (leprosy)
  23. High G+C Gram positive bacteria:
    • •Form branching filaments like fungi
    • •Some produce reproductive spores at
    • ends of filaments
    • •Normal inhabitant of oral cavity of humans
    • Opportunistic pathogen
  24. High G+C Gram positive bacteria:
    • •Degrades many pollutants – waxes, petroleum, detergents, benzene, polychlorinated
    • biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, rubber
  25. High G+C Gram positive bacteria:
    • •Degrades lignin in wood, chitin (skeletons of insects), latex, aromatic chemicals,
    • keratin (hair and nails)
    • •Gives
    • soil its characteristic smell
    • •Producer of most of the important
    • antibiotics
  26. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    Nitrogen fixers
    • Aerobes that can grow at very low nutrient content
    • Some have cell extensions called prothecae
    • Used for attachment and to increase
    • surface area for nutrient absorption
    • Nitrogen fixers
    • •Important in agriculture Grow in association with roots
    • Take N2 out of the air and make ammonia
    • •Rickettsia is a small rod that lives inside mammalian cells
    • •Causes typhus and Rocky Mountain
    • spotted fever from ticks 
    • Brucellia is a coccobacillus that causes brucellosis – causes spontaneous abortions andsterility in animals, like cows, and humans
  27. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    • •Neisseria
    • – G- diplococcus that causes gonorrhea, meningitis, pelvic inflammatory disease
  28. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    Glycolytic facultative anaerobes
    • •Legionella thrive inside phagocytes
    • Glycolytic facultative anaerobes •Largest group
    • Includes
    • E. coli and the Enterobacteriaceae(G-
    • rods that primarily live in the colon)
    • Pseudomonads- Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes urinary tract infections ,swimmers’ ear, often in endotracheal
    • tubes in patients (green sputum)
    • Extremely resistant organism
  29. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    • Desulfovibrio – important in the sulfur cycle
    • •Makes H2S gas and corrodes iron pipes in heating systems, sewer lines, etc.
    • Bdellovibrio •Attacks G- bacteria
    • Swims rapidly through medium and attaches to a G- bacterium
    • Drills through the cell wall with enzyme and by rotating at 100 RPM
    • Lives inside periplasmic space
    • Myxobacteria •Differentiate reproductive
    • structures
    • Makes fruiting bodies that release myxospores
  30. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    Helicobacter pylori
    • Campylobacter - food poisoning
    • •Inflammation of intestinal tract
    • and blood poisoning
    • •Meat is major source
    • Helicobacter pylori causes ulcers and some stomach cancer
  31. Gram negative proteobacteria:
    Other Gram- negative bacteria-
    • Chlamydia
    • •Only reproduce inside of cells
    • •Causesblindness, pneumonia, and a sexually transmitted disease – lymphogranulomavenereum
    • Most common sexually transmitted
    • bacterial disease in the US
    • Spirochetes
    • •Treponema pallidum – syphilis
    • •Borrelia
    • -Lyme disease
    • Bacteroids
    • •Obligate anaerobes
    • •Most common anaerobic pathogen
    • •Bacteroides inhabits digestive tract of humans and animals 30% of bacteria in feces are Bacteroides