Chapter 15

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medic11
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20246
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Chapter 15
Updated:
2010-05-22 22:18:22
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Respiratory Cards
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  1. What are the 5 basic functions of the Resp system.
    • Gas exchange between air and circulating blood
    • Air to and fr gas exchange surfaces
    • Protect surfaces fr dehtdration, changes in temp and pathogens
    • Auditory communication
    • Olfactory sensations to CNS
  2. 2 divisions of the resp tract?
    • Conducting Portion
    • Respiratory Portion
  3. Conducting portion begins @ ______ ______ & continues thru?
    • Nasal Cavity
    • Pharynx > Larynx > Trachea > Bronchi > Larger Bronchioles
  4. Respiratory Portion includes ?
    Smallest and Most delicate bronchioles and alveoli
  5. 15-1 #1
    Nasal Cavity
  6. 15-1 #2
    Sphenoidal Sinus
  7. 15-1 #3
    Internal Nares
  8. 15-1 #4
    Pharynx
  9. 15-1 #5
    Esophogus
  10. 15-1 #6
    Frontal Sinus
  11. 15-1 #7
    Nasal Conchae
  12. 15-1 #8
    Nose
  13. 15-1 #9
    Tongue
  14. 15-1 #10
    Hyoid Bone
  15. 15-1 #11
    Larynx
  16. 15-1 #12
    Trachea
  17. 15-1 #13
    Bronchus
  18. 15-1 #14
    Bronchioles
  19. 15-1 #15
    Carina
  20. 15-1 #16
    Diaphram
  21. 15-1 #17
    Vein
  22. 15-1 #18
    Artery
  23. 15-1 #19
    Alveolus
  24. 15-1 #20
    Capillary Network
  25. Why, when speaking of the resp sys, are Arteries blue indicating deoxygenated blood and veins red carrying oxygenated blood?
    Because Arteries carry blood away fr the heart and in the case of the resp sys away fr the R side of the heart is carrying blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated. Veins carry blood to the heart and in this case O2 rich blood is taken to the L side of the heart to be pumped out to the body.
  26. 15-2 #1
    Frontal Sinus
  27. 15-2 #2
    Nasal cavity
  28. 15-2 #3
    Internal Nares
  29. 15-2 #4
    Nasopharynx
  30. 15-2 #5
    Pharyngeal Tonsil
  31. 15-2 #6
    Entrance to Auditory tube
  32. 15-2 #7
    Soft Palate
  33. 15-2 #8
    Palatine Tonsil
  34. 15-2 #9
    Oropharynx
  35. 15-2 #10
    Epiglottis
  36. 15-2 #11
    Laryngopharynx
  37. 15-2 #12
    Glottis
  38. 15-2 #13
    Vocal Fold
  39. 15-2 #14
    Esophogus
  40. 15-2 #15
    Trachea
  41. 15-2 #16
    Cricoid Cartilage
  42. 15-2 #17
    Thyroid Cartilage
  43. 15-2 #18
    Hyoid Bone
  44. 15-2 #19
    Mandible
  45. 15-2 #20
    Tongue
  46. 15-2 #21
    Oral Cavity
  47. 15-2 #22
    Hard Palate
  48. 15-2 #23
    External Nares
  49. 15-2 #24
    Nasal Vestibule
  50. 15-2 #25
    Nasal Conchae
  51. What is Respiratory Mucosa?
    Mucus membrane lining the nasal cavity and much of the resp tract.
  52. Pharynx is divided into what 3 parts?
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  53. What is the coughing reflex?
    • Triggered by food of fluid touching vocal cords
    • Glottis kept closed while chest & abd muscles contract compressing lungs. Resulting blast of air thru trachea ejects matrerial
  54. Arytenoids are made up of the ?
    • Corniculate Cartilage
    • Cuneiform Cartilage
    • Arytenoid Cartilage
  55. The trachea begins and ends where posteriorly and anteriorly?
    • Begins @ C6 and the cricoid cartilage
    • Ends @ T5 and the carina within the mediastinum
  56. What is the carina?
    PLace where trachea splits into 2 primary bronchi
  57. How does bruising of the trachea present? How do we treat?
    • Presents as the sensation that something is stuck in the throat.
    • Can be treated with glucagon or a lido slurry
  58. What is R main stem bronchus intubation?
    How do we fix it?
    This is when a tube is inserted past the carina and into the R bronchi resulting in only the R side being ventilated. It is usually repaired by backing the tube out just a bit.
  59. Why foreign objects entering the trachea find their way into the R primary bronchus rather than the left?
    Because the R is larger in diameter and decends toward the lung @ a steeper angle
  60. 15-6 #1
    Secondary Bronchus
  61. 15-6 #2
    Tertiary Bronchi
  62. 15-6 #3
    Smaller Bronchi
  63. 15-6 #4
    Bronchioles
  64. 15-6 #5
    Branch of Pulmonary Vein
  65. 15-6 #6
    Capillary Beds
  66. 15-6 #7
    Alveolar Ducts
  67. 15-6 #8
    Alveoli
  68. 15-6 #9
    Alveolar Sac
  69. 15-6 #10
    Terminal Bronchiole
  70. 15-6 #11
    Respiratory Bronchiole
  71. 15-6 #12
    Arteriole
  72. What effect does sympathetic activation have on brochioles?
    Leads to relaxation of smooth muscles in the walls of the bronchioles causing bronchodilation
  73. How does parasympathetic stimulation effect bronchioles?
    Leads to contraction of smooth muscles in the bronchioles causing constriction
  74. What is a lobule?
    Segment of lung tissue bounded by connective tissue partitions & supplied by a single bronchiole
  75. What are alveolar macrophages?
    Roaming dust cells that patrol the epithelium, phagocytizing dust and debris that has reached the alveolar surfaces
  76. What is surfactant?
    Superficial coating over the thin layer of water that coats the alveolar surface reducing surface tension that result fr attraction between water molecules at an air water boundary
  77. What is a pulmonary embolism?
    Blockage of a branch of a pulmonary artery that stops blood flow to a group of lobules or alveoli.
  78. How many lobes are in the R lung?
    They're called?
    • Three lobes
    • Superior, Middle, Inferior
  79. How many lobes in the L lung?
    They're called?
    • Two lobes.
    • Superior and Inferior
  80. Where is the Apex of the lung?
    It extends to the base of the neck above the first rib
  81. What is the location of the bases of the lungs?
    They rest on the superior surface of the diaphram
  82. What covers the outer surface of the lungs?
    Viseral Pleura
  83. What covers the inner surface of the of the body wall around the lungs?
    Parietal Pleura
  84. What is a pneumothorax?
    When air is allowed into the pleural cavity due to a penetrating inj to the chest wall, damage to the alveoli and/or visceral pleura
  85. What is atelectais?
    Collapsed lung
  86. What is a hemothorax?
    Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity reducing lung volume.
  87. What are the three integrated steps in respiration?
    • Pulmonary Ventilation
    • Gas Exchange
    • Gas Transport
  88. What is pulmonary ventilation?
    The physical movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract
  89. What makes up a respiratory cycle?
    An inhalation and an exhalation
  90. What is respiratory rate and what is it for adults and pediatrics?
    • Number if breathes per minute.
    • Adult = 12-18/min
    • Ped = 18-20/min
  91. What is alveolar Ventilation?
    Movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
  92. What is Hypoxia?
    Lowered O2 concentrations is tissues.
  93. What is Anoxia?
    The complete cutting off of O2 fr tissues.
  94. What is compliance?
    • An indication of lung's resiliance and ability to expand.
    • Lower compliance = greater force to fill and empty lungs
    • Greater compliance = Easier to fill and empty lungs
  95. Describe quiet breathing?
    Breathing where inhalation involves muscular contractions and exhalation is passive.
  96. Describe forced breathing.
    Both inhalation and exhalation are active processes using accessory muscles during inhalation and internal intercostal and abdominal muscles during exhalation.
  97. What is tidal volume?
    Amt of air moved into or out of the lungs during a single resp cycle.
  98. Describe Experitory Reserve Volume (ERV).
    How much air is involved?
    • The amount of air that could be voluntarily expelled att he end of a resp cycle.
    • About 1000 CCs
  99. Describe Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) and how much air is involved.
    • Amt of air that can be taken in over and above resting tidal volume.
    • About 3300CCs in males
    • About 1900 CCs in females
  100. Describe Vital Capacity
    The sum of IRV, ERV and tidal volume or amt of air that can be moved into and out of resp sys in a single cycle
  101. Describe residual volume and how much air is involved
    • Amt of air remaining in lungs after maximal exhalation.
    • Males = 1200 CCs
    • Females = 1100 CCs
  102. Describe minimal volume
    When the chest cavity is penetrated this is the amt of air left after the lungs collapse
  103. Describe partial pressure.
    Each of the gasses in air contributes to the total atmospheric pressure in proportion to its relative abundance. The pressure contributed by a single gas is its partial pressure
  104. What is external respiration?
    The diffusion of gasses between blood and alveolar air across respiratory membrane
  105. What is internal respiration?
    The diffusion of gasses between blood and interstitial fluid across the endothelial cells of capillary walls
  106. How is equilibrium within the cardiovascular and respiratory systems maintained?
    • Thru changes in blood flow and O2 delivery under local control
    • Thru changes in depth & rate of resp under ctrl of brains resp ctrs
  107. What is the effect of PCO2 on on bronchioles?
    • PCO2 increases = bronchioles dilate
    • PCO2 decreases = bronchioles constrict
  108. What are respiratory centers in the brain?
    Three prs of nuclei in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla oblongata
  109. What do respiratory rhythmicity ctrs do & where are they?
    In the medulla oblongata and they set the pace for respiration
  110. The brains involuntary resp ctrs do what?
    Regulate resp muscles and ctrl rate and depth of respirations.
  111. What are respiratory reflexs and what ctrls them?
    Alterations in the pattern of respirations according to info fr mechanoreceptors (stretch and pressure receptors) and chemoreceptors
  112. What does the inflation reflex do?
    Prevents lungs fr overexpanding during forced breathing
  113. How do changes in BP affect resp rate and what causes the adjustment?
    • BP drops = resp rate increases
    • BP rises = resp rate declines
    • Stimulation or inhibition of resp ctrs by sensory fibers in glossopharyngeal & vagus nerves
  114. Why do CO2 levels effect resp activity more than O2 levels?
    B/C sm increase in PCO2 stimulates CO2 receptors but PO2 rarely declines enough to activate O2 receptors therefore CO2 levels are responsible for regulating resp act under norm conds
  115. What is the hypoxic drive?
    In a person w/ chronic resp probs (ie COPD) CO2 levels are always high so body looks to O2 receptors rather than CO2 receptors for stimulation to breath.
  116. What happens when we give high flow O2 to a person with hypoxic drive?
    The increased PO2 tells the body it doesnt need to breath b/c it has enough O2 so they go into resp failure
  117. 15-4 #1
    Corniculate Cartilage
  118. 15-4 #2
    Cuniform Cartilage
  119. 15-4 #3
    False Vocal Cords
  120. 15-4 #4
    Vocal Cords
  121. 15-4 #5
    Arytenoid Cartilages
  122. 15-4 #6
    Epiglottis
  123. 15-4 #7
    Hyoid Bone
  124. 15-4 #8
    Thyroid Cartilage
  125. 15-4 #9
    Cricoid Cartilage
  126. 15-4 #10
    Corniculate Cartilage
  127. 15-4 #11
    Glottis
  128. 15-4 #12
    Cuneiform Cartilage
  129. 15-4 #13
    False Vocal Cord
  130. 15-4 #14
    Vocal Cord
  131. 15-4 #15
    Epiglottis
  132. 15-4 #16
    False Vocal Cord
  133. 15-4 #17
    Corniculate Cartilage
  134. 15-4 #18
    Cuneiform Cartilage
  135. 15-4 #19
    Vocal Cord
  136. 15-4 #20
    Epiglottis

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