Health Physics Exam 1

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joesaflea
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Health Physics Exam 1
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2013-02-22 00:34:07
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Health Physics Exam
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Health Physics Exam 1
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  1. Isotope
    Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
  2. Isobar
    Atoms that have the same number of nucleons but different numbers of protons and neutrons.
  3. Isotone
    Atoms that have the same number of neutrons.
  4. Isomer
    Atoms that have the same number of protons and neutrons but a different nuclear energy state.
  5. The four basic forces of nature are:
    • 1 Gravitational force - between two masses
    • 2 Electromagnetic force - charged particles
    • 3 Weak forces - beta decay processes
    • 4 Strong forces - Nuclear force
  6. Who discovered the neutron and in what year?
    • James Chadwick
    • 1932
  7. Who discovered the x-ray and in what year?
    • Roentgen
    • Nov 8, 1895
  8. Who discovered the radioactivity and in what year?
    • Becquerel
    • 1896
  9. Who discovered the polonium and radium and in what year?
    • Curie
    • 1898
  10. What are the three sources of radiation exposure?
    • 1 Terrestrial radiation - from earth
    • 2 Cosmic radiation - from space
    • 3 Anthropogenic radiation - man-made
  11. What are the 3 common types of radiation from nucleus of radionuclides?
    • 1 Alpha particles
    • 2 Beta particles
    •       a) negatrons
    •       b) positrons
    • 3 Gamma rays (similar to x-rays) - originate in the nucleus while x-rays come from electrons.
  12. What is the annual occupational allowance for radiation workers?
    • 5000 mrem (5 rem)
    • 30 mrem (chest)
    • 10 mrem (dental)
  13. Z = ______ number, dependant on the number of ______.
    Atomic number, protons
  14. A = ______ number, dependant on the number of ______.
    Mass number, protons + neutrons
  15. N = ______ number
    Neutron number
  16. How many elements are there?
    109
  17. Which elements occur naturally?
    1-92 (uranium) occur naturally except 43 (techetium) and 61 (promethium)
  18. Which elements have been synthesized?
    93 (neptunium) - 109
  19. Which elements are radioactive?
    83 (bismuth) - 109
  20. What are the three fundamental base quantities?
    • 1 Mass
    • 2 Length
    • 3 Time
  21. Unit of mass?
    Slug
  22. Velocity?
    V = length/time
  23. Force?
    F = (mass)(acceleration)
  24. Momentum?
    M = (mass)(velocity)
  25. Work?
    W = (force)(distance)
  26. Power?
    P = work/time
  27. Water boils at?
    100 C, 212 F, 373 K
  28. Water freezes at?
    0 C, 32 F, 273 K
  29. The three ways heat transfers are:
    • 1 Conduction - transferring between 2 toughing objects.
    • 2 Convection - mechanical transfer by rapid moving gas or liquid.
    • 3 Thermal radiation.
  30. Define: Radiation
    Radiation - Energy emitted from a source as waves or particles and transmitted through space.
  31. Define: Radioactivity
    Radioactivity - The phenomenon of spontaneously emitting radiation as a result of changes in the nuclei of atoms that are energetically unstable.
  32. To exist in nature a radionuclide must either:
    Be continuously produced or have a half-life comparable to the age of the earth.
  33. The range of the typical alpha particle in air is___________:
    2 to 3 cm
  34. The range of the typical beta particle in air is ____________:
    20 to 30 cm
  35. The difference between x-rays and gamma-rays is their ______________?
    origin
  36. There are two types of beta particles; positrons and negatrons. Which of the two types of beta particles is an example of antimatter?
    Positron
  37. Alpha particle decay does not occur in radionuclides with “A” < _________________.
    140
  38. Positron emission can not occur unless Q is at least ______________MeV.
    1.022 MeV
  39. All of the following are components of isomeric transition:
    • Radiative transition
    • Internal conversion
    • Gamma ray emissions
    • Cascade gamma ray emissions
  40. In which one of these is an ion-pair not produced instantaneously along with the interaction?
    Paired production
  41. Which one of these occurs in the field of a charged particle?
    Paired production
  42. In which one of these is an ion-pair not produced instantaneously along with the interaction?
    paired production
  43. In which two of these is there a requirement that the interaction occur with a whole atom in order to conserve momentum?
    photoelectric effect and paired production
  44. Which one of these predominates at the lowest energies?
    photoelectric effect
  45. Which one of these is most important to the radiologist who needs to be shielded from the radiation scattered off the patient?
    photoelectric effect
  46. Pair production only occurs at energies greater than ____________MeV and starts to predominate the other two interactions at energies greater than ____________MeV.
    1.022, 5
  47. For the photoelectric effect, the probability of interaction may begenerally expressed as : = Const. (________ /_________ ) where n = ______ to ________.
    = Const. ( Z^n / E^3 ) where n = 4 to 5.
  48. For Compton scattering, the probability of interaction may be generally expressed as : = Const. (__________/_________)
    = Const. ( Z/E )
  49. For pair production, the probability of interaction may be generallyexpressed as : = Const. _____( _____________________)
    = Const. Z^2 ( hc/E - 1.022 MeV)

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