ch 4.txt

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ch 4.txt
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ch 4
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  1. The study of the physical world around us that includes the sciences of chemistry and physics is called -
    Physical science.
  2. Energy exists in which of the following states?
    Kinetic energy & Potential energy
  3. Stored energy possessed by an object that can be released in the future to perform work is known as -
    Potential Energy.
  4. The energy possessed by a moving object is known as -
    Kinetic Energy.
  5. __ is a rapid and self-sustaining chemical process that yields heat and usually light.
    Fire & Combustion
  6. Iron rusting is a prime example of which of the following reactions?
    Oxidation reaction
  7. Our atmosphere contains __ oxygen.
    21%
  8. Chemical reactions in which a substance absorbs heat energy are called -
    Endothermic heat reactions.
  9. Chemical reactions between two or more materials that changes the materials and produces heat. flames, and toxic smoke are -
    Exothermic heat reactions
  10. Oxidation reactions can be characterized by which of the following?
    Exothermic & Energy Releasing
  11. The four main components of the Fire Tetrahedron include fuel, heat, oxygen and -
    Self-sustained chemical reaction.
  12. An oxidizing agent would be defined as -
    A material that yields oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction.
  13. Which is an example of "Potential Energy?"
    The water inside a charged hoseline.
  14. Which is an example of "Kinetic Energy?"
    The water as it leaves the hose as the nozzle is opened.
  15. What is a measurement of kinetic energy?
    Temperature
  16. A joule is equal to -
    1 newton over the distance of 1 meter.
  17. __ is kinetic energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules that comprise matter.
    Heat
  18. The amount of energy delivered over a period of time is called -
    Power.
  19. The amount of heat necessary to raise one pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit is known as a -
    British Thermal Unit (BTU).
  20. The temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 is known as -
    Celsius
  21. The amount of heat necessary to raise one gram of water 1 degree Celsius is known as a -
    Calorie.
  22. How many joules of heat energy must be added to a kilogram of water in order to increase its temperature by 1 degree celsius?
    4200
  23. The chemical decomposition of a substance through the action of heat is called -
    Pyrolysis.
  24. Which type of ignition occurs when a mixture of fuel and oxygen encounter an external heat source with sufficient heat energy to start the combustion reaction?
    Piloted ignition.
  25. __ occurs without any external flame or spark to ignite the fuel gases or vapors.
    Autoignition.
  26. The temperature to which the surface of a substance must be heated for ignition and self-sustaining combustion to occur is called -
    Autoignition temperature.
  27. Which is the most common source of heat in combustion reactions?
    Chemical energy.
  28. The rate at which most chemical reactions occurs doubles with each __ increase in the temperature of the heating materials.
    18 degrees F.
  29. Resistance heating, overcurrent, arcing, and sparking are all examples of which type of heating?
    Electrical heating.
  30. A high temperature luminous electrical discharge across a gap or through a medium such as charred insulation would be considered -
    Arcing.
  31. The heat that is produced when electrical current flows through a conductor is called -
    Resistance heating
  32. Luminous particles formed and spattered away from a point of arcing is referred to as -
    Sparking
  33. The heat energy that is generated by friction or compression is called -
    Mechanical heat energy.
  34. The transfer of heat by the movement of heated fluids or gases, usually in an upward direction is known as -
    Convection.
  35. You are in a basement of a building, the fire has heated up a pipe to such a high temperature that it has ignited a floor joice several yards away. This type of heat transfer would be known as -
    Conduction.
  36. Materials that absorb heat but do not participate actively in a combustion reaction are known as -
    Passive agents.
  37. The fuel that is being oxidized or burned during combustion is referred to as a -
    Reducing agent.
  38. The density of a gas or vapor in relation to air is known as -
    Vapor density
  39. Most gases are heavier than air, however, there are exceptions. Which of the following gases has a vapor density which makes it lighter than air?
    Methane.
  40. You are called to a home where there is a smell of gas inside the residence. After speaking to the home owner he tells you that his gas grill propane tank was leaking inside his kitchen. You are told by the IC to attempt to remove the remaining gas with a ventilation fan. Where should you position the fan?
    Right of the threshold of doorway blowing out.
  41. You are called to a two story residence for a carbon monoxide call. The Captain hands you the meter and tell you to meter the entire residence. Where would you expect to find the highest readings?
    On the second floor.
  42. The ratio of the mass of a given volume of a liquid compared to its mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature is called -
    Specific gravity
  43. The transformation of a liquid to vapor or gaseous state is known as -
    Vaporization
  44. The pressure produced or exerted by vapors released by a liquid is known as -
    Vapor pressure
  45. The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near a liquid's surface is called it's -
    Flash point
  46. The minimum temperature at which a liquid produces sufficient vapors to support combustion once the fuel is ignited is called it's -
    Fire point.
  47. Most ignitible liquids -
    Have a specific gravity less than one
  48. Which would be considered a polar solvent?
    Ethanol
  49. When considering solubility of a liquid fuel, which of the following would you expect to dissolve in water?
    Polar solvents.
  50. The degree to which a solid, liquid, or gas dissolves in a solvent is known as it's -
    Solubility
  51. __ describes materials that are capable of being mixed .
    Miscible
  52. The chemical decomposition of a substance through the action of heat is known as -
    Pyrolysis
  53. The size of solid fuels significantly effects the ignitability of the fuel. In view of this, which of the following statements is true regarding a solid fuel's surface to mass ratio?
    As the surface area increases the ignitability increases.
  54. The physical position of a fuel plays a role in the rate of pyrolysis. Fire will spread more rapidly when a solid fuel is in a __ position because of -
    Vertical / Conduction.
  55. For solid fuels, when does pyrolysis begin?
    At temperatures below 400 degrees F.
  56. At which stage of pyrolysis will the majority of moisture already have been released and charring has begun?
    Stage 2.
  57. At which stage of pyrolysis will free burning of a wood material exist?
    Stage 4.
  58. The total amount of energy released when a specific amount of fuel is oxidized is known as -
    Heat of combustion
  59. The energy released per unit of time as a given fuel burns is known as the -
    Heat release rate
  60. What is the primary oxidizing agent in most fires?
    Oxygen in the atmosphere.
  61. At room temperature (70 degrees F or 21 degrees C), what is the minimum concentration of atmospheric oxygen that will support combustion?
    14%.
  62. Oxygen enriched atmospheres are atmospheres -
    With concentrations of oxygen that exceed 23.5%.
  63. What would not be considered a common oxidizer?
    Noble Gases.
  64. According to OSHA any atmosphere having less than __ oxygen in the air as being oxygen deficient and a hazard to firefighters not wearing SCBA.
    19.5%.
  65. In order for combustion to occur, a fuel must be converted into a gaseous state. The range between the upper flammable and lower flammable limit in which a substance can be ignited is known as the -
    Explosive range / Combustion range.
  66. What would be flammable range of propane?
    2.1% - 9.5%
  67. Some extinguishing agents such as Halon interrupts the flame-producing chemical reaction and terminates the combustion reaction. This can best be described as -
    Extinguishment by chemical flame inhibition.
  68. The most common hazardous material contained in smoke is -
    Carbon monoxide (CO).
  69. Which compound acts as a chemical asphyxiant by binding with hemoglobin in the blood?
    Carbon monoxide.
  70. Which compound acts as a chemical asphyxiant by preventing the body from using oxygen at the cellular level?
    Hydrogen cyanide.
  71. Which compound is a product of complete combustion of organic materials?
    Carbon dioxide.
  72. Water is commonly used to extinguish Class A fires by cooling the material below its ignition temperature. Class A foams are used to enhance water's ability to extinguish Class A fires by -
    Reducing the water surface tension allowing it to penetrate more easily into the burning material.
  73. Which is the most effective method of extinguishing a Class B fire?
    Excluding oxygen from the fire.
  74. Energized electrical equipment and household appliances would be classified as -
    Class C fires.
  75. The safest way to fight a class C fire is to -
    De-energize the source and then treat the fire as a Class A or Class B fire.
  76. Class D fires are those that involve combustible metals. Which of the following would NOT be considered a combustible metal?
    Carbon.
  77. Which extinguishing agent should never be used to extinguish a Class C fire?
    Water.
  78. Combustible metals are particularly hazardous -
    In powdered form
  79. Which extinguishing method is best for controlling Class D fires?
    Class D extinguishing agents.
  80. What do Class K fires include?
    Oils and greases normally found in commercial kitchens.
  81. The phenomenon that occurs when a mixture of alkaline-based chemicals and certain cooking oils come in contact resulting in the formation of a soapy foam is called -
    Saponification.
  82. A (An) __ is defined as a fire that occurs within an enclosed room or space within a building.
    Compartment fire.
  83. __ describes the condition in which all four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion begins.
    Ignition.
  84. In compartment fires, when the fuel available to burn is limited, the fire is said to be __. Likewise, if the amount of available oxygen is limited, the condition is known as -
    Fuel controlled, ventilation limited.
  85. Linseed oil rags igniting would be an example of which of the following?
    Nonpiloted ignition.
  86. Piloted ignition is caused by -
    A spark or flame.
  87. The first stage of the burning process in a confined space in which the substance being oxidized is producing heat is called the -
    Incipient stage.
  88. After a compartment fire has become ignited, a fire plume begins to develop above the burning fuel. As the plume develops it begins to draw air in from the surrounding space into the column. Which stage of fire development does this best describe?
    Incipient
  89. As a fire plume develops, it entrains air from the surrounding space into the column. The air moving into the plume has an overall cooling effect on the temperatures within the plume. Taking this into consideration, where would you expect within a compartment fire, that the temperatures within the plume would be at the hottest temperatures?
    Fuel packages in corners of the compartment.
  90. During the incipient stage of a fire hot gases begin to spread horizontally across the ceiling of a compartment. This is called -
    Mushrooming / Ceiling Jet
  91. At which stage of a fire is fuel and oxygen virtually unlimited, and is characterized by the rapid release of heat?
    Growth.
  92. __ is the transition between the growth and fully developed fire stages, and is not a specific event, such as ignition. Broadly defined as the temperature inside a compartment that results in the simultaneous ignition of all combustible contents in the space.
    Flashover.
  93. At what stage of fire development do burning fuels in a compartment fire, release their maximum amounts of heat possible from the available fuel packages, and produce large volumes of fire gases?
    Fully Developed.
  94. __ occurs where flames move through or across the unburned gases at the top of a compartment during a fire's progression.
    Flameover / Rollover
  95. Rollover differs from flashover in that -
    Only the flammable gases are burning and not the room contents.
  96. One of the most important physical properties that a firefighter should know about smoke is that smoke is -
    Unburned fuel that is ready to ignite.
  97. At what stage of a fire does oxygen concentrations fall to the point where flaming combustion can no longer be supported?
    Decay stage.
  98. What is the autoignition temperature of carbon monoxide?
    1128 degrees F.
  99. The instantaneous explosion or rapid burning of superheated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen-depleted confined space is known as a -
    Backdraft.
  100. A method to help prevent backdraft from occurring is to -
    Open the structure at the highest point involved.
  101. When water is converted to steam it expands approximately __ times.
    1700

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