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****Exercise 8 lab****
What are the 5 classification of bones
Gross features of long bones
- Proximal and Distal Epiphyses
- Articular cartilage
- Epiphyseal line
- Compact bone
- Medullary cavity
- Yellow bone marrow
- Nutrient foramen
- Nutrient artery
- Spongy bone
Structure of a compact bone
- Osteons- repeating rings of:
- Central canal- provides nutrients
- Periosteum- dense regular CT covers bone
- Perforating canal- runs with central canal
- Concentric lamellae-concentric rings with calcified ECM
- Lacunae- found between thin rings
- Canaliculi- thin lines connecting lacunae filled with ECM
- Osteocytes-mature bone cells in lacunae
Structure of a spongy bone
- Trabeculae- bony lattice contains red marrow and lined with endosteum
- Lamellae-concentric rings with calcified ECM
- Lacunae- found between rings contains osteocytes
- Osteocytes- mature bone cells in lacunae
- Canaliculi- thin lines connecting lacunae filled with ECM
Properties of osseus tissues
- 25% water
- 25% collagen fibers
- 50% mineral salts (calcium, phosperus, etc.)
What bone shapes are the:
Femur, sternum, rib, vertebra, scapula, coxal bone, patella, bones of upper limb.
- Femur- long
- rib- flat
- sternum- flat
- vertebra- irregular
- scapula- flat
- coxal bone- irregular
- patella- sesamoid
- bones of the upper limb- long
If you bake a bone in high temps, what happens to it?
Bones are made of water, collagen fibers and mineral salts. Baking a bone can denature the protein substance in collagen and also dry out the mineral within the bone, causing the bone to become weak and brittle.
If you place a bone in vinegar for a few days, what happens to it?
Bones contain water, protein collagen fibers and mineral. Placing bone in vinegar causes the water and mineral contents to leach out of the bones leaving behind only the collagen fibers, which causes the bone to become weak and flexible.
what bone cells are found in the lacunae
what is the vertical canal found in an osteon
what cavity contains yellow marrow in adults
what is the bone shaft composed of
What are the spaces that the osteocytes are located
What is the horizontal canal in an osteon
The small canal connecting the lacunae
What is the membrane lining the medullary cavity
what is the membrane that covers the bone
What are the thin bony structures in spongy bone
which bone (compact or spongy) is composed of osteon
which bone (compact or spongy) is contains ostocytes and lacunae
which bone (compact or spongy) has lamellae
which bone (compact or spongy) has trabeculae
which bone (compact or spongy)has perforating canals
which bone (compact or spongy) is located in epiphyses
which bone (compact or spongy) is located in diaphysis
which bone (compact or spongy) has a central canal
which bone (compact or spongy) has spaces filled with red marrow
spongy bone in the epiphyses
which bone (compact or spongy) has a canaliculi
Which bones are produced partly by intramembranous ossification
Which structures are found in compact bone, but not in cancellous (spongy) bone?
central (haversian) canal
Which represents the correct order as nutrients pass from outside the bone to the osteocytes
- Blood vessels in the periosteum
- perforating canal
- central canal
In endochondral ossification, the perichondrium that surrounds the hyaline cartilage becomes
Which type of bone growth is responsible for an increase in the diameter of bones
what is the function of the perichondrium
covers the surface of articular cartilage.
Ch 7 lecture
What is the function of the axial skeleton?
The protection of the internal organs
Classify appendicular bones on the basis of their locations.
Appendicular bones run laterally and attach to the axial bones.
Pectoral (shoulder girdle) includes:
- scapula and clavicle
- upper limbs of the arm bones and all of its parts.
Pelvic (hip) girdle includes:
- coxal bone
- lower limbs leg bones and all of their parts
Classify axial bones on the basis of their locations
Axial bones run longitudinal to the body from the head down to the space between the feet.
- skull bones (cranium and face)
- auditory occicles
- hyoid bone
- Thorax (sternum and ribs)
- vertebral column bones
What are processes on surface markings on bones? Discuss the function.
Process markings are projections or outgrowths that help form joints or attachments sites for ligaments and tendons.
- examples: condyles
- spinous process
What are the depressions and openings of surface markings on bones? Discuss their functions.
Openings and depressions for the passing of soft tissues (vessels, ligaments, tendons, and formation of joints) includes:
- Foreamen-- holes
- Fossa-- shallow depressions
- Meatus-- tube like openings
- Fissure---narrow slits
Name the bones that make up the skull and are considered cranial bones.
Name the bones that make up the face
- inferior nasal conchae
What are the bone markings of the skull from lecture?
- Coronal suture
- squamous suture
- sagittal suture
- lambdoid suture
What are the functions of the skull
- protects the brain and sense organs
- allows attachment for membranes and muscles
which skull bones contain sinuses? Which 4 contain the paranasal sinuses?
frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones contains sinuses.
The four paranasal sinuses are found in the following bones:
- maxillary bones
What are the functions of the sinuses?
- lightens the mass of the skull
- help to moisten and cleanse inhaled air
- Also intensifies and prolongs sound, enhancing voice quality.
what is the location and function of the hyoid bone?
located between the mandible and larynx and suspended by the styloid processes of the temporal bones attached by ligaments and muscles.
Its function is to support the tongue and provides attachment sites for some of the tongue muscles and pharynx, larynx muscles
How many bones make up the vertebral columns?
- 33 during early development.
- 26 after adulthood when the sacrum and coccyx fuse together
Name the 5 divisions of the vertebra and how many are found in each region?
- 7 Cervical (separated)
- 12 Thoracic (separated)
- 5 lumbar (separated)
- 1 sacrum (Fused with coccyx)
- 1 coccyx (fused with the sacrum)
Are the vertebral columns fused or separated in adults?
They are separated, but in adults, the 5 rings in the sacral vertebrae and the 4 coccygeal vertebrae in the coccyx, fuse together.
What are the functions of the vertebrae column?
- increase the strength of the column
- maintains balance and upright position
- absorbs shock during walking
- protects the vertebrae from fractures
- supports and encloses the spinal column
- supports the head
- point of attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back and limbs
What are invertebral disks and what kind of tissues are they made from?
a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column.
What passes through the intervertebral foramen
Name the curves of the spinal column
Describe the structure of a typical vertebra and name the 7 processes found.
Vertebra body structures come in different sizes, shapes and details. They consist of:
- transverse processes
- spinous process
- superior articular processes
- vertebral or intervertebral foreamen
- vertebral arch
Name the first and second cervical vertebra.
The atlas (c1) supports the head and able to knod back and forth.
The axis (c2) attaches to the atlas and aids in pivoting and rotating the head.
what is the bony thorax and which bones form it?
The thoracic cage is the rib cage and it consists of:
- vertebra body
- costal cartilage
what are fontanels?
Incomplete developed cranial bones on a baby's head that enables the skull to flex and fit through the birth canal.
Ch 8 lecture
What is the function of the appendicular skeleton?
Name the major divisions of the appendicular skeleton.
- Pectoral girdles (upper extremity)
- Pelvic girldle (lower extremity)
which bones form the pectoral girdle and what are their functions?
they both help attach the arms to the upper extremities (axial skeleton).
What are the bones found in the arm?
which bones form the pelvic girdle and what are their functions?
coxal or hip bones
functions in the support of the vertebral column and pelvic viscera also in the attachment of the lower limbs (axial skeleton).
Name the three bones that fuse to form the coxal bone?
What is the acetabulum and what is its function?
A deep fossa impression formed by the ilium, ischium and pubis.
Function is to articulate with the rounded head of the femur forming the hip joint.
Name the bones of the leg.
Where is the patella located and what is its skeletal shape?
Shaped like a sesamoid bone and located in the knee surface joint.
ch 9 lecture
Define joint (articulation)
A point of contact between each bone.
Describe the classification of joints based on structure (fibrous).
- Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint
- cavity is present
Fibrous dense CT (Synarthroses – immovable)
Cartilaginous (Amphiarthroses – slightly movable)
Synovial dense CT w/articular capsule (Diarthroses – freely movable)
What are sutures and ligaments?
Sutures are a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense CT only found in the skull.
Ligaments are flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones, cartilage or holds together a joint
Describe the classification of joints based on their function.
Relates to the degree of movement permitted by the joints.
- Synarthrosis---An immovable fiberous joint
- Amphiarthrosis- A slightly moveable carilaginous joint
- Diarthrosis-- is a freely movable synovial joint that contains synovial fluids
Discuss the main features of a synovial joint.
Synovial joints all have the following
- Articular cartilage
- Joint (synovial) cavity
- Articular capsule
- Synovial fluid
- synovial membrane
6 functional classes of synovial joints based on movement and examples.
- Plane joint- nonaxial joints
- Hinge joints--knee,elbow
- Pivot joints--Axis C1 and the dens on the C2 cervical vertebra
- condyloid joint-wrist
- Saddle joint--carpometacarpal joint
- Ball and socket joint--shoulder and hip joints
Describe the following types of movement:
- Gliding-- side/side, front/back movements of flat bones (intercarpals)
- flexion--decrease in angle between articulation bones (elbow)
- extention--increase in angle between articulating bones(hip joint)
- adduction--midline movement (shoulder joint)
- abduction--movement away from midline (shoulder joint)
- circumduction--flexion/extension movement in circles(elbow joint)
- Rotation- movement of forearm that turns palms anterioly (arm facing the ceiling)
- pronation--movement of forearm that turns posterioly (arm facing towards floor)
What is arthritis?
Inflammation and stiffness of joints.
****Exercise 9 lab****
Depressions or openings and their functions
Fossa--Shallow depressions for muscle attachment or articulation
Meatus---Tube like passage or opening for blood vessels and nerves
Process--a bump that does not articulate with other bones
Processes for articulations and their functions
- condyle---smooth and round for articulation
- Ramus---A small branch for articulation
- Spine-- a pointed process for articulation
What are the cranial bones?
What are the facial bones?
- inferior nasal conchae
What are the cranial sutures and what cranial bones are they apart of?
- Coronal--- the frontal bone
- Sagittal-- the parietals
- Squamous--- the temporal bone
- Lambdoid--- occipital bone
Identify the 6 fontanels and where can they be located?
- Anterior--frontal bone
- (2) anteriolateral---sphenoid bone
- posterior---occipital bone
- (2)posteriolateral---mastoid bone
Where on the cranium can you find the paranasals?
- frontal bone
- maxillary bone
- sphenoid bone
- ethmoid bone
What are the bone markings for the frontal bone?
Supra orbital foreamen
What are the bone markings for the parietal bone?
What are the bone markings for the temporal bone?
- mastoid process
- styloid process
- external auditory meatus
- internal auditory meatus
- mandibular fossa (mandibular condyle fits here)
- zygomatic process
What are the bone markings for the occipital bone?
- Foreamen magnum
- occipital condyles
What are the bone markings for the sphenoid bone?
- lesser and greater wings
- sella turcica (the pituitary gland fits here)
What are the bone markings for the Ethmoid bone?
- Cristi galli
- cribform plate
- perpendicular plate
- middle nasal conchae
What are part of the mandible facial bones?
- mandibular chondyle
- coronoid process
- mental foreamen
- mandibular foremen
What are part of the maxilla facial bones?
- palatine process
- infra orbital foreamen
What are part of the zygomatic facial bones?
- Zygomatic arch
- zygomatic bone
- zygomatic process of the temporal
What are part of the lacrimal bones?
What are the openings for blood vessels and nerves on facial bones?
- Supra orbital foreamen
- infra orbital foreamen
- mental foreamen
- mandibular foreamen
- superior/inferior orbital foreamen
- lacrimal fossa
What are the openings for blood vessels and nerves on interior/exterior of the skull?
- foreamen lacerum
- foramen spinosum
- foramen ovale
- jugular foramen
- foramen rotundum
- optic foreamen
- foreamen magnum
- cartoid canal
- stylomastoid foreamen
- hypoglossal foreamen
- internal auditory meatus
What does the vertebral column consists of?
- Cervical (7 bones)
- Thoracic (12 bones)
- Lumbar (5 bones)
- Sacrum (1 bone in adults and 5 in children)
- Coccyx (1 bone)
parts of a typical vertebra
- body (were the intervertebral disks are)
- pedicle (looks like a grooved seat)
- transverse process (tip of ear of the animal)
- Lamina (top bridge of the animals nose)
- spinous process (tip of the nose)
- vertebral foremen (spinal cord fits)
- superior/inferior articular facet ( bumps articulates with other vertebra)
What are intervertebral disks and where are they located?
intervertebral disks fits between the body of each vertebra and serves as a cushion for the spine.
What is the difference between the vertebral foreamen and a transverse foreamen, where are they located?
vertebral foreamen is an opening on the spinal column that allows the spinal cord to pass through.
transverse foreamens are found in the cervical vertebrae and allows spinal nerves to pass.
What is a hyoid bone?
A u-shaped bone that is not a part of the axial skeleton, but is included because it is located in the midline location. It does not articulate with any other bone.
What are the parts of a typical thoracic vertebra?
looks like a giraffe..
- Superior articular process(bump were other vertebra sits)
- Spinous process (tip of nose part)
- Tansverse process (tip of ear part)
- Lamina (vertical arch top of nose part)
- Vertebral foreamen (spinal cord passes)
- Pedicle (saddle like groove)
- superior and inferior articular facet process articulate with other vertebras
- Facets for articular ribs (were a rib attaches)
- Body (were a intervertebral sits)
What are the c1 and c2 cervical vertebrae and what do they look like?
- C1 (Atlas)
- lacks a body
- barely has a spinous process
- transverse foreamen
- C2 (Axis) sits inside of C1
- den process
- short spinous process
- transverse foreamen
both have no bodies
What does a cervical vertebrae look like?
- short forked spinous process (baby elephant)
- tansverse process
- small body
Lumbar vertebrae description.
- hatchet shaped spinosus process(looks like a moose)
- spinous process is short and flat
description of the sacrum and coccyx
sacrum foramina--provide exits for the spinal nerves
coccyx--formed by the fussion of 3-5 incomplete vertabrae and attached by ligaments
Thoracic rib cage composed of.
- costal cartilages
- thoracic vertebrae
what is a sternum and what is it composed of?
a narrow flat bone in the rib cage composed of manubrium (the body)
parts of a rib
- non-articular of turbicle
- articular of turbicle attches to transverse
- costal angle
List three types of muscle tissues.
- Smooth muscle
Describe skeletal tissue and its function
skeletal tissues are:
- functions to move bones
Describe cardiac tissue and its function
cardiac tissues are:
- has intercalated discs
- involuntary performs autorhythmically
- found in the heart
Describe smooth tissue and its function
smooth tissues are:
- found in hollow internal structures
- performs autorhthmically
- performs involuntary
Discuss the 4 function of muscle tissues
- Body movement
- stabilizes body positions
- stores and moves materials within
- generates heat
Describe the gross anatomy of skeletal muscle in details fig 10.1
- Epimysium--CT covers the outer layer of muscles
- Perimysium--CT within surrounds bundles of (twizzler) fascicles
- Fasicles---covers a bundle of myofibrils
- Endomysium--CT that within fasicles separates each mybrofibrils.
what is the function of CT in skeletal coats?
protection and covering of muscle fibers, muscle fascicles, and an entire skeletal muscle
- Protect muscles from physical trauma
- insulating layer preventing heat loss
Describe the structure and function of a tendon.
three skeletal coats of connective tissues that extends from the fascia to form a rope like structure that attaches muscles to the periosteum of bones.
- epimysium--ct surrounds outer area of myofibrils
- perimysium--ct surrounds fascicles
- endomysium--ct within fascicles that separates each myofibril
A broad flat sheet layer that has a wide area of attachment.
What is the overall shape of a skeletal muscle fiber (cell)?
elongated and cylindryical
Why do skeletal muscles appear striated under the microscope?
Because the thin and thick protein bands of filaments overlap each other.
Describe the function of Myofibrils
contractile proteins in skeletal muscles
what do myofibrils consist of?
thin actin and thick myosin protein filaments
Describe the function of Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
It stores and releases calcium ions when needed for muscle contractions.
What is a sarcoplasm reticulum?
membranous sacs of stored calcium ions.
Describe the function of transverse tubules?
It allows action potentials to reach the myofibrils to contract muscles.
What are transverse tubules?
tunnel like extensions of the sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
Give a detailed description of the protein of thick and thin filaments
Thick myosin protein filaments that folds and twist together to from a golf club like structure with two heads and a tail.
Thin actin filaments molecules form together to create a twisted helix
What role does the sarcolemma have in muscle contraction?
It allows action potentials to spread across it's membrane and travel through t-tubules to generate a muscle contraction
What is the function of Myoglobin?
binds to oxygen molecules in producing ATP
What is the function of Glycogen?
Glucose reserves in muscle cells for ATP production
What is the function of creatine phosphate?
To generate enough ATP to maintain muscle contraction for a few seconds.It is the first source of energy in muscle.
What is a sarcomere?
be able to draw it
one compartmentalized unit of myofibril filaments
What are neurotransmitters?
a nerve impulse that transmits the release of acetylcholine for a muscle contraction
What controls skeletal muscle contractions?
describe a neuromuscular junction
The site where an action potential initiates the contraction of a muscle.
Explain excitation contraction coupling
It is the steps that causes excitation (muscle action potential along the sarcolemma into the t-tubules) to contract the (sliding filaments) myofibrils.
Discuss the role of troponin.
A sensitive calcium complex that aids in removing tropomyosin from the myosin actin active site when it binds with calcium.
Discuss the role of tropomyosin.
switches the muscle contraction process on and off by blocking the myosin actin binding site.
Discuss the role of calcium.
Calcium binds to troponin, stimulating a troponin/tropomyosin complex, exposing the actin binding site.
Summarize the steps leading from arrival of a nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction to the calcium release from the sacroplamic reticulum
- nerve impulse reaches axon of a motor neuron
- calcium ions causes release of synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine
- synaptic vesicle perform exocytosis through synaptic cleft
- binding of receptors and triggers action potential
- AP spreads across the sarcolemma into t-tubules
- opening of calcium channels in the SR into the sarcoplasm
outline the contraction cycle
sliding filament model 10.9
- Calcium ions binds to troponin
- active sites of myofilaments expose
- cross bridge forms
- ATP splits
- energizing of myosin heads to bind to actin
- power stroke (sliding of filaments) occurs
- ATP causes myosin head to be released from the myosin actin bindin site
what is a motor unit?
all muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron.
Discuss a motor unit recruitment
The process of activating multiple motor units together during greater force produced by the muscle.
- produces smooth movements rather
- than a series of jerky movements
what is a twitch?
a brief contraction of all muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single impulse
what is a tetanus?
Multiple contractions of all muscle fibers when muscles fibers are continualously stimulated
Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions
isotonic contractions are muscles that remain engaged while in constant motion.
Isometric contractions are muscles that remain engaged while holding steady.
What is muscle fatigue?
The inability of a muscle to contract after prolonged activity.
Source of energy in order during exercise
- ATP and creatine phosphate in the cell
- Aerobic respiration
- anaerobic respiration
Discuss the effects of high energy exercise on muscle tissues
high-intensity exercise limits oxygen delivery to muscle cells causing lactic acid (anaerobic respiration)
Discuss the effects of moderate exercise on muscle tissues
low-intensity exercise delivers adequate oxygen to the muscle increasing ATP production due to Aerobic respiration.
What happens to muscle tissues when it atrophies?
Muscle tissues decrease in mass and become weak
What are some causes of atrophy?
- Muscular dystrophy
- Lou Gehrigs disease
a muscle attachment across a joint to an immovable bone.
ex. bicep muscle
a muscle attachment across a joint to a moveable bone
ex. Ulna and radius attached to the humerus/bicept
Define agonist (prime mover)
a direct muscle that contracts
a muscle that opposes a contraction of another. (relaxes)
muscles that work together to either oppose or produce a contraction.
What is the function of the connective tissue coats in skeletal muscles besides protection?
movement of the skeletal muscle
What are three competative inhibitors in muscle contraction (toxins or poisons)