Bone structure lab (8,9,10,11) and lecture(6,7,8,9,10)

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Bone structure lab (8,9,10,11) and lecture(6,7,8,9,10)
2013-03-25 15:16:37
Homework lab exercises

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  1. ****Exercise 8 lab****

    What are the 5 classification of bones
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
    • sesamoid
  2. Gross features of long bones
    • Proximal and Distal Epiphyses
    • Diaphysis
    • Articular cartilage
    • Epiphyseal line
    • Compact bone
    • Medullary cavity
    • Yellow bone marrow
    • Periosteum
    • Nutrient foramen
    • Nutrient artery
    • Endosteum
    • Spongy bone
  3. Structure of a compact bone
    • Osteons- repeating rings of:
    • Central canal- provides nutrients
    • Periosteum- dense regular CT covers bone
    • Perforating canal- runs with central canal
    • Concentric lamellae-concentric rings with calcified ECM
    • Lacunae- found between thin rings
    • Canaliculi- thin lines connecting lacunae filled with ECM
    • Osteocytes-mature bone cells in lacunae
  4. Structure of a spongy bone
    • Trabeculae- bony lattice contains red marrow and lined with endosteum
    • Lamellae-concentric rings with calcified ECM
    • Lacunae- found between rings contains osteocytes
    • Osteocytes- mature bone cells in lacunae
    • Canaliculi- thin lines connecting lacunae filled with ECM
  5. Properties of osseus tissues
    • 25% water
    • 25% collagen fibers
    • 50% mineral salts (calcium, phosperus, etc.)
  6. What bone shapes are the:

    Femur, sternum, rib, vertebra, scapula, coxal bone, patella, bones of upper limb.
    • Femur- long
    • rib- flat
    • sternum- flat
    • vertebra- irregular
    • scapula- flat
    • coxal bone- irregular
    • patella- sesamoid
    • bones of the upper limb- long
  7. If you bake a bone in high temps, what happens to it?
    Bones are made of water, collagen fibers and mineral salts.  Baking a bone can denature the protein substance in collagen and also dry out the mineral within the bone, causing the bone to become weak and brittle.
  8. If you place a bone in vinegar for a few days, what happens to it?
    Bones contain water, protein collagen fibers and mineral.  Placing bone in vinegar causes the water and mineral contents to leach out of the bones leaving behind only the collagen fibers, which causes the bone to become weak and flexible.
  9. what bone cells are found in the lacunae
  10. what is the vertical canal found in an osteon
    perforating canal
  11. what cavity contains yellow marrow in adults
    medullary cavity
  12. what is the bone shaft composed of
    compact bone
  13. What are the spaces that the osteocytes are located
  14. What is the horizontal canal in an osteon
    Central canal
  15. The small canal connecting the lacunae
  16. What is the membrane lining the medullary cavity
  17. what is the membrane that covers the bone
  18. What are the thin bony structures in spongy bone
  19. which bone (compact or spongy) is composed of osteon
    compact bone
  20. which bone (compact or spongy) is contains ostocytes and lacunae
  21. which bone (compact or spongy) has lamellae
  22. which bone (compact or spongy) has trabeculae
    spongy bone
  23. which bone (compact or spongy)has perforating canals
    compact bone
  24. which bone (compact or spongy) is located in epiphyses
    spongy bone
  25. which bone (compact or spongy) is located in diaphysis
    compact bone
  26. which bone (compact or spongy) has a central canal
    compact bone
  27. which bone (compact or spongy) has spaces filled with red marrow
    spongy bone in the epiphyses
  28. which bone (compact or spongy) has a canaliculi
  29. Which  bones are produced  partly by intramembranous ossification
    • clavical
    • frontal
    • mandible
    • parietal
  30. Which  structures are found in compact bone, but not in cancellous (spongy) bone?
    central (haversian) canal
  31. Which represents the correct order as nutrients pass from outside the bone to the osteocytes
    • Blood vessels in the periosteum
    • perforating canal
    • central canal
    • canaliculi
  32. In endochondral ossification, the perichondrium that surrounds the hyaline cartilage becomes
  33. Which type of bone growth is responsible for an increase in the diameter of bones
    intramembranous growth
  34. what is the function of the perichondrium
    covers the surface of articular cartilage.
  35. Ch 7 lecture

    What is the function of the axial skeleton?
    The protection of the internal organs
  36. Classify appendicular bones on the basis of their locations.
    Appendicular bones run laterally and attach to the axial bones.

    Pectoral (shoulder girdle) includes:

    • scapula and clavicle
    • upper limbs of the arm bones and all of its parts.

    Pelvic (hip) girdle includes:

    • coxal bone
    • lower limbs leg bones and all of their parts
  37. Classify axial bones on the basis of their locations
    Axial bones run longitudinal to the body from the head down to the space between the feet.

    • skull bones (cranium and face)
    • auditory occicles
    • hyoid bone
    • Thorax (sternum and ribs)
    • vertebral column bones
  38. What are processes on surface markings on bones? Discuss the function.
    Process markings are projections or outgrowths that help form joints or attachments sites for ligaments and tendons.

    • examples: condyles
    • spinous process
    • epicondyle
    • trochanter
    • tuberosity
    • turbicle
  39. What are the depressions and openings of surface markings on bones? Discuss their functions.
    Openings and depressions for the passing of soft tissues (vessels, ligaments, tendons, and formation of joints) includes:

    • Foreamen-- holes
    • Fossa-- shallow depressions
    • Meatus-- tube like openings
    • Fissure---narrow slits

  40. Name the bones that make up the skull and are considered cranial bones.
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
  41. Name the bones that make up the face
    • Nasal
    • maxilla
    • zygomatic
    • mandible
    • lacrimal
    • palatine
    • vomer
    • inferior nasal conchae
  42. What are the bone markings of the skull from lecture?
    • Coronal suture
    • squamous suture
    • sagittal suture
    • lambdoid suture
  43. What are the functions of the skull
    • protects the brain and sense organs
    •  allows attachment for membranes and muscles
  44. which skull bones contain sinuses? Which 4 contain the paranasal sinuses?
    frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones contains sinuses.

    The four paranasal sinuses are found in the following bones:

    • Frontal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • maxillary bones
  45. What are the functions of the sinuses?
    • lightens the mass of the skull
    • help to moisten and cleanse inhaled air
    • Also intensifies and prolongs sound, enhancing voice quality.
  46. what is the location and function of the hyoid bone?
    located between the mandible and larynx and suspended by the styloid processes of the temporal bones attached by ligaments and muscles.

    Its function is to support the tongue and provides attachment sites for some of the tongue muscles and pharynx, larynx muscles
  47. How many bones make up the vertebral columns?
    • 33 during early development.
    • 26 after adulthood when the sacrum and coccyx  fuse together
  48. Name the 5 divisions of the vertebra and how many are found in each region?
    • 7 Cervical (separated)
    • 12 Thoracic (separated)
    • 5 lumbar (separated)
    • 1 sacrum  (Fused with coccyx)
    • 1 coccyx (fused with the sacrum)
  49. Are the vertebral columns fused or separated in adults?
    They are separated, but in adults, the 5 rings in the sacral vertebrae and the 4 coccygeal vertebrae in the coccyx, fuse together.
  50. What are the functions of the vertebrae column?
    • increase the strength of the column
    • maintains balance and upright position
    • absorbs shock during walking
    • protects the vertebrae from fractures
    • supports and encloses the spinal column
    • supports the head
    • point of attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back and limbs
  51. What are invertebral disks and what kind of tissues are they made from?
    a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column.
  52. What passes through the intervertebral foramen
    spinal cord
  53. Name the curves of the spinal column
    • Cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  54. Describe the structure of a typical vertebra and name the 7 processes found.
    Vertebra body structures come in different sizes, shapes and details.  They consist of:

    • transverse processes
    • spinous process
    • superior articular processes
    • vertebral or intervertebral foreamen
    •  pedicle
    •  lamina
    • vertebral arch
    • body
  55. Name the first and second cervical vertebra.
    The atlas (c1) supports the head and able to knod back and forth.

    The axis (c2) attaches to the atlas and aids in pivoting and rotating the head.
  56. what is the bony thorax and which bones form it?
    The thoracic cage is the rib cage and it consists of:

    • vertebra body
    • ribs
    • sternum
    • costal cartilage
  57. what are fontanels?
    Incomplete developed cranial bones on a baby's head that enables the skull to flex and fit through the birth canal.
  58. Ch 8 lecture

    What is the function of the appendicular skeleton?
  59. Name the major divisions of the appendicular skeleton.
    • Pectoral girdles (upper extremity)
    • Pelvic girldle (lower extremity)
  60. which bones form the pectoral girdle and what are their functions?
    • Clavicle
    • Scapula


    they both help attach the arms to the upper extremities (axial skeleton).
  61. What are the bones found in the arm?
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • ulna
    • carpals
    • metacarpals
    • phalanges
  62. which bones form the pelvic girdle and what are their functions?
    coxal or hip bones

    functions in the support of the vertebral column and pelvic viscera also in the attachment of the lower limbs (axial skeleton).
  63. Name the three bones that fuse to form the coxal bone?
    • Ilium
    • ishium
    • pubis
  64. What is the acetabulum and what is its function?
    A deep fossa impression formed by the ilium, ischium and pubis.

    Function is to articulate with the rounded head of the femur forming the hip joint.
  65. Name the bones of the leg.
    • Femur
    • tibia
    • fibula
    • Patella
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges
  66. Where is the patella located and what is its skeletal shape?
    Shaped like a sesamoid bone and located in the knee surface joint.
  67. ch 9 lecture

    Define joint (articulation)
    A point of contact between each bone.
  68. Describe the classification of joints based on  structure (fibrous).
    • Structural classification focuses on the material binding bones together and whether or not a joint
    • cavity is present

    Fibrous dense CT (Synarthroses – immovable)

    Cartilaginous  (Amphiarthroses – slightly movable)

    Synovial dense CT w/articular capsule (Diarthroses – freely movable)
  69. What are sutures and ligaments?
    Sutures are a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense CT only found in the skull.

    Ligaments are flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones, cartilage or holds together a joint
  70. Describe the classification of joints  based on their function.
    Relates to the degree of movement permitted by the joints.

    • Synarthrosis---An immovable fiberous joint
    • Amphiarthrosis- A slightly moveable carilaginous joint
    • Diarthrosis-- is a freely movable synovial joint that contains synovial fluids
  71. Discuss the main features of a synovial joint.
    Composed of:

    Synovial joints all have the following

    • Articular cartilage
    • Joint (synovial) cavity
    • Articular capsule
    • Synovial fluid
    • synovial membrane
  72. 6 functional classes of synovial joints based on movement and examples.
    • Plane joint- nonaxial joints
    • Hinge joints--knee,elbow
    • Pivot joints--Axis C1 and the dens on the C2  cervical vertebra
    • condyloid joint-wrist
    • Saddle joint--carpometacarpal joint
    • Ball and socket joint--shoulder and hip joints
  73. Describe the following types of movement:

    flextion (angular)
    extension (angular)
    adduction (angular)
    abduction (angular)
    circumduction (angular)
    • Gliding-- side/side, front/back movements of flat bones (intercarpals)
    • flexion--decrease in angle between articulation bones (elbow)
    • extention--increase in angle between articulating bones(hip joint)
    • adduction--midline movement (shoulder joint)
    • abduction--movement away from midline (shoulder joint)
    • circumduction--flexion/extension movement in circles(elbow joint)
    • Rotation- movement of forearm that turns palms anterioly (arm facing the ceiling)
    • pronation--movement of forearm that turns posterioly (arm facing towards floor)
  74. What is arthritis?
    Inflammation and stiffness of joints.
  75. ****Exercise 9 lab****

    Depressions or openings and their functions
    Fossa--Shallow depressions for muscle attachment or articulation

    Meatus---Tube like passage or opening for blood vessels and nerves

    Process--a bump that does not articulate with other bones
  76. Processes for articulations and their functions
    • condyle---smooth and round for articulation
    • Ramus---A small branch for articulation
    • Spine-- a pointed process for articulation
  77. What are the cranial bones?
    • Frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • occipital
  78. What are the facial bones?
    • Nasal
    • zygomatic
    • maxillary
    • mandibular
    • lacrimal
    • palantine
    • vomer
    • inferior nasal conchae
  79. What are the cranial sutures and what cranial bones are they apart of?
    • Coronal--- the frontal bone
    • Sagittal-- the parietals
    • Squamous--- the temporal bone
    • Lambdoid--- occipital bone
  80. Identify the 6 fontanels and where can they be located?
    • Anterior--frontal bone
    • (2) anteriolateral---sphenoid bone
    • posterior---occipital bone
    • (2)posteriolateral---mastoid bone
  81. Where on the cranium can you find the paranasals?
    • frontal bone
    • maxillary bone
    • sphenoid bone
    • ethmoid bone
  82. What are the bone markings for the frontal bone?
    Supra orbital foreamen
  83. What are the bone markings for the parietal bone?
    Sagittal suture
  84. What are the bone markings for the temporal bone?
    • mastoid process
    • styloid process
    • external auditory meatus
    • internal auditory meatus
    • mandibular fossa (mandibular condyle fits here)
    • zygomatic process
  85. What are the bone markings for the occipital bone?
    • Foreamen magnum
    • occipital condyles
  86. What are the bone markings for the sphenoid bone?
    • lesser and greater wings
    • sella turcica (the pituitary gland fits here)
  87. What are the bone markings for the Ethmoid bone?
    • Cristi galli
    • cribform plate
    • perpendicular plate
    • middle nasal conchae
  88. What are part of the mandible facial bones?
    • Alveoli
    • body
    • ramus
    • mandibular chondyle
    • coronoid process
    • mental foreamen
    • mandibular foremen
  89. What are part of the maxilla facial bones?
    • Alveoli
    • palatine process
    • infra orbital foreamen
  90. What are part of the zygomatic facial bones?
    • Zygomatic arch
    • zygomatic bone
    • zygomatic process of the temporal
  91. What are part of the lacrimal bones?
    lacrimal fossa
  92. What are the openings for blood vessels and nerves on facial bones?
    • Supra orbital foreamen
    • infra orbital foreamen
    • mental foreamen
    • mandibular foreamen
    • superior/inferior orbital foreamen
    • lacrimal fossa
  93. What are the openings for blood vessels and nerves on interior/exterior of the skull?
    • foreamen lacerum
    • foramen spinosum
    • foramen ovale
    • jugular foramen
    • foramen rotundum
    • optic foreamen
    • foreamen magnum
    • cartoid canal
    • stylomastoid foreamen
    • hypoglossal foreamen
    • internal auditory meatus
  94. What does the vertebral column consists of?
    • Cervical (7 bones)
    • Thoracic (12 bones)
    • Lumbar (5 bones)
    • Sacrum (1 bone in adults and 5 in children)
    • Coccyx (1 bone)
  95. parts of a typical vertebra
    • body (were the intervertebral disks are)
    • pedicle (looks like a grooved seat)
    • transverse process (tip of ear of the animal)
    • Lamina (top bridge of the animals nose)
    • spinous process (tip of the nose)
    • vertebral foremen (spinal cord fits)
    • superior/inferior articular facet ( bumps articulates with other vertebra)
  96. What are intervertebral disks and where are they located?
    intervertebral disks fits between the body of each vertebra and serves as a cushion for the spine.
  97. What is the difference between the vertebral foreamen and a transverse foreamen, where are they located?
    vertebral foreamen is an opening on the spinal column that allows the spinal cord to pass through.

    transverse foreamens are found in the cervical vertebrae and allows spinal nerves to pass.
  98. What is a hyoid bone?
    A u-shaped bone that is not a part of the axial skeleton, but is included because it is located in the midline location.  It does not articulate with any other bone.
  99. What are the parts of a typical thoracic vertebra?
    looks like a giraffe..

    • Posterior:
    • Superior articular process(bump were other vertebra sits)
    • Spinous process (tip of nose part)
    • Tansverse process (tip of ear part)
    • Lamina (vertical arch top of nose part)

    • Anterior:
    • Vertebral foreamen (spinal cord passes)
    • Pedicle (saddle like groove)
    • superior and inferior articular facet process articulate with other vertebras
    • Facets for articular ribs (were a rib attaches)
    • Body (were a intervertebral sits)
  100. What are the c1 and c2 cervical vertebrae and what do they look like?
    • C1 (Atlas)
    • lacks a body
    • barely has a spinous process
    • transverse foreamen

    • C2 (Axis) sits inside of C1
    • den process
    • short spinous process
    • transverse foreamen

    both have no bodies
  101. What does a cervical vertebrae look like?
    • short forked spinous process (baby elephant)
    • tansverse process
    • small body
  102. Lumbar vertebrae description.
    • hatchet shaped spinosus process(looks like a moose)
    • spinous process is short and flat
  103. description of the sacrum and coccyx
    sacrum foramina--provide exits for the spinal nerves

    coccyx--formed by the fussion of 3-5 incomplete vertabrae and attached by ligaments
  104. Thoracic rib cage composed of.
    • sternum
    • ribs
    • costal cartilages
    • thoracic vertebrae
  105. what is a sternum and what is it composed of?
    a narrow flat bone in the rib cage composed of manubrium (the body)
  106. parts of a rib
    • head
    • non-articular of turbicle
    • articular of turbicle attches to transverse
    • costal angle
    • body
  107. ****Ch 10 lecture***
  108. List three types of  muscle tissues.
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth muscle
  109. Describe skeletal tissue and its function
    skeletal tissues are:

    • striated
    • multinucleated
    • voluntary
    • functions to move bones
  110. Describe cardiac tissue and its function
    cardiac tissues are:

    • striated
    • has intercalated discs
    • involuntary performs autorhythmically
    • found in the heart
  111. Describe smooth tissue and its function
    smooth tissues are:

    • non-striated
    • found in hollow internal structures
    • performs autorhthmically
    • performs involuntary
  112. Discuss the 4 function of muscle tissues
    • Body movement
    • stabilizes body positions
    • stores and moves materials within
    • generates heat
  113. Describe the gross anatomy of skeletal muscle in details fig 10.1
    • Epimysium--CT covers the outer layer of muscles
    • Perimysium--CT within surrounds bundles of (twizzler) fascicles
    • Fasicles---covers a bundle of myofibrils
    • Endomysium--CT that within fasicles separates each mybrofibrils.
  114. what is the function of CT in skeletal coats?
    protection and covering of muscle fibers, muscle fascicles, and an entire skeletal muscle

    • Protect muscles from physical trauma
    • insulating layer preventing heat loss
  115. Describe the structure and function of a tendon.
    three skeletal coats of connective tissues that extends from the fascia to form a rope like structure that attaches muscles to the periosteum of bones.

    • epimysium--ct surrounds outer area of myofibrils
    • perimysium--ct surrounds fascicles
    • endomysium--ct within fascicles that separates each myofibril
  116. Define aponeurosis
    A broad flat sheet layer that has a wide area of attachment.

    ex. cranium.
  117. What is the overall shape of a skeletal muscle fiber (cell)?
    elongated and cylindryical
  118. Why do skeletal muscles appear striated under the microscope?
    Because the thin and thick protein bands of filaments overlap each other.
  119. Describe the function of Myofibrils
    contractile proteins in skeletal muscles
  120. what do myofibrils consist of?
    thin actin and thick myosin protein filaments
  121. Describe the function of Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    It stores and releases calcium ions when needed for muscle contractions.
  122. What is a sarcoplasm reticulum?
    membranous sacs of stored calcium ions.
  123. Describe the function of transverse tubules?
    It allows action potentials to reach the myofibrils to contract muscles.
  124. What are transverse tubules?
    tunnel like extensions of the sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
  125. Give a detailed description of the protein of thick and thin filaments
    Thick myosin protein filaments that folds and twist together to from a golf club like structure with two heads and a tail.

    Thin actin filaments molecules form together to create a twisted helix
  126. What role does the sarcolemma have in muscle contraction?
    It allows action potentials to spread across it's membrane and travel through t-tubules to generate a muscle contraction
  127. What is the function of Myoglobin?
    binds to oxygen molecules in producing ATP
  128. What is the function of Glycogen?
    Glucose reserves in muscle cells for ATP production
  129. What is the function of creatine phosphate?
    To generate enough ATP to maintain muscle contraction for a few seconds.It is the first source of energy in muscle.
  130. What is a sarcomere?

    be able to draw it
    one compartmentalized unit of myofibril filaments
  131. What are neurotransmitters?
    a nerve impulse that transmits the release of  acetylcholine for a muscle contraction
  132. What controls skeletal muscle contractions?
  133. describe a neuromuscular junction
    The site where an action potential initiates the contraction of a muscle.
  134. Explain excitation contraction coupling
    It is the steps that causes excitation (muscle action potential along the sarcolemma into the t-tubules) to contract the (sliding filaments) myofibrils.
  135. Discuss the role of troponin.
    A sensitive calcium complex that aids in removing tropomyosin from the  myosin actin active site when it binds with calcium.
  136. Discuss the role of tropomyosin.
    switches the muscle contraction process on and off by blocking the myosin actin binding site.
  137. Discuss the role of calcium.
    Calcium binds to troponin, stimulating a troponin/tropomyosin complex, exposing the actin binding site.
  138. Summarize the steps leading from arrival of a nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction to the calcium release from the sacroplamic reticulum
    • nerve impulse reaches axon of a motor neuron
    • calcium ions causes release of synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine
    • synaptic vesicle perform exocytosis through synaptic cleft
    • binding of receptors and triggers action potential
    • AP spreads across the sarcolemma into t-tubules
    • opening of calcium channels in the SR into the sarcoplasm
  139. outline the contraction cycle
    sliding filament model 10.9
    • Calcium ions binds to troponin
    • active sites of myofilaments expose
    • cross bridge forms
    • ATP splits
    • energizing of myosin heads to bind to actin
    • power stroke (sliding of filaments) occurs
    • ATP causes myosin head to be released from the myosin actin bindin site
  140. what is a motor unit?
    all muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron.
  141. Discuss a motor unit recruitment
    The process of activating multiple motor units together during greater force produced by the muscle.

    • produces smooth movements rather
    • than a series of jerky movements
  142. what is a twitch?
    a brief contraction of all muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single impulse
  143. what is a tetanus?
    Multiple contractions of all muscle fibers when muscles fibers are continualously stimulated
  144. Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions
    isotonic contractions are muscles that remain engaged while in constant motion.

    Isometric contractions are muscles that remain engaged while holding steady.
  145. What is muscle fatigue?
    The inability of a muscle to contract after prolonged activity.
  146. Source of energy in order during exercise
    • ATP and creatine phosphate in the cell
    • Aerobic respiration
    • anaerobic respiration
  147. Discuss the effects of high energy exercise on muscle tissues
    high-intensity exercise limits oxygen delivery to muscle cells causing lactic acid (anaerobic respiration)
  148. Discuss the effects of moderate exercise on muscle tissues
    low-intensity exercise delivers adequate oxygen to the muscle increasing ATP production due to Aerobic respiration.
  149. What happens to muscle tissues when it atrophies?
    Muscle tissues decrease in mass and become weak
  150. What are some causes of atrophy?
    • Muscular dystrophy
    • Lou Gehrigs disease
  151. Define origin
    a muscle attachment across a joint to an immovable bone.

    ex. bicep muscle
  152. Define insertion
    a muscle attachment across a joint to a moveable bone

    ex. Ulna and radius attached to the humerus/bicept
  153. Define agonist (prime mover)
    a direct muscle that contracts

    ex. bicep
  154. define antagonist
    a muscle that opposes a contraction of another. (relaxes)

    ex. tricept
  155. define synergist
    muscles that work together to either oppose or produce a contraction.
  156. What is the function of the connective tissue coats in skeletal muscles besides protection?
    movement of the skeletal muscle
  157. What are three competative inhibitors in muscle contraction (toxins or poisons)
    • nerve gas
    • botulism
    • curare