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What is cell culture?
When we grow cells in the lab on artificial media with suitable nutrients
What kind of conditions are required to grow all types of cells?
Aseptic (sterile) conditions
What do mammal cells require to grow in culture?
- A solid surface
- Growth factors eg animal serum such as foetal bovine serum (FBS) which contains proteins, salts, vitamins and glucose. This promotes cell proliferation
- Antibiotics (to prevent microbial contamination)
What type of enzymes are used to free the cells from the source tissue for use in the lab?
What happens when cells are added to the surface flask?
- They adhere to the surface media
- Spread out and divide
- This creates a monolayer
- When the cells are confluent they stop dividing
Why must mammal cells be subcultured?
- Cells will have used up the nutrients
- Mammal cells can only divide a finite number of times in culture (around 60)
How do we get immortal cell lines?
- From cancer cells
- By genetically altering cells to ensure they do not only divide a set number of times
Plant cells are totipotent. What does this mean?
They can divide into any cell type
What can plant cells in culture be grown from?
- Explants - small pieces of plant tissue
- Protoplasts - plant cells with cellulose cell walls removed by cellulase ad pectinase
What does plant cell culture require?
Suitable growth media including nutrients (Macronutrients = N, P, K and Mg. Micronutrients = Zn, Na and Cu) sugars and vitamins.
When protoplasts / explants grow they form a mass of undifferentiated cells called a...?
What type of regulators are required in plant cell culture to stimulate differentiation?
- Cytokinins to encourage shoot grow
- Auxins to encourage root growth
What can bacteria / fungi be grown on?
Nutrient agar or broth (which have the correct nutrients, pH and moisture microorganisms require)