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Hemoglobin is made up of...
4 subunits of goblin
What happens if individual amino acids (monomers) form together?
they form a polymer
What is a protein? (2)
-consists of linked amino acids
What amino acid is replaced when a person has sickle cell?
glutamate to valine
What can changing an amino acid fo to a protein?
-change structure and function
Steps to how protein is made? (3)
1. DNa is read and produces mRNA
2. mRNA slips out of nucleus and is read by ribosome to produce a protein
3. ribosome then creates the protein
Where does protein synthesis take place?
Where is DNA found?
What is transcription?
production of mRNA
what is translation?
synthesis of protein from mRNA
What are the precise parirings where the 2 strands meet called?
(DNA helix) what are the arrows called when they point opposite sides?
What are the strands made up of?
Where is the code for building proteins?
embedded in DNA
What are the 4 bases of DNA?
What leads to the precision and stability of DNA?
exact fit between base pairs
(DNA bases) What are the purines? (2)
(DNA bases) Pyrimidines
What happens at each rung of the ladder in DNA helix?
a purine strand bonds with a pyrimidine strand
In what base do DNA and RNA differ?
Dna has thymine and RNA has Uracil
Why are the DNA bases called bases?
they act as a chemical base
*sucks up protons
**nitrogen groups do it
What forms the back bone of the DNA helix chain? (2)
deoxyribose and phosphate
What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose?
Deoxyribose is missing an O
What is nucleotide?
is a molecule that has a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate
What is a nucleoside?
a molecule that has a base and sugar but no phosphate group