kat bio core40.txt

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karennnb
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20261
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kat bio core40.txt
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2010-05-22 02:59:10
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kat bio core
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kat bio core 40
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  1. Do isotopes have the same chemical properties as one another?
    Yes, they have the same number of electrons and bond the same exact way.
  2. What is the atomic number? What is the mass number? What gives you the number of neutrons?
    Atomic number = protons; Mass number = protons and neutrons; Mass number = atomic number- number of neutrons
  3. What are the stages in the scientific method?
    make observations 2. define the problem 3. make hypothesis 4. perform experiment 5. form theories
  4. What is a polar covalent bond?
    When atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons unequally to make an atom
  5. What is a hydrogen bond?
    A weak bond between the oppositely charged ends of a polar covalent molecule
  6. What is the molecular formula for glucose and fructose?
    C6 H12 06; they�re isomers.
  7. What organisms can digest cellulose?
    Bacteria and fungi
  8. What glucose polymer does your liver synthesize in order to control your blood glucose levels?
    Glycogen (process=homeostatis)
  9. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
    Saturated fats hold as many Hydrogens as possible. Unsaturated have one or more double bonds.
  10. What is a polypeptide?
    A chain of amino acids bonded together
  11. What makes one polypeptide different from another polypeptide?
    Number of amino acids and its sequence
  12. What are the products in the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide?
    Water and oxygen gas
  13. Describe exothermic reactions.
    They release energy to the environment. They tend to be spontaneous. There is less energy in the bonds of the products than in the reactants.
  14. Describe endothermic reactions.
    They absorb energy from the environment. They tend to be non-spontaneous. There is more energy in the bonds of the products than in the reactants.
  15. Many chemical reactions that result in the production of an end product are called what?
    Biochemical pathway
  16. What type of transport requires the cell to expend energy? What type does not require it to do so?
    Active transport; passive transport
  17. What type of transport includes osmosis and dialysis?
    Passive transport
  18. What does hypotonic mean?
    Solution whose solute concentration is less than the cell (bursts)
  19. What does hypertonic mean?
    Solution whose solute concentration is greater than the cell (shrivels up)
  20. What is plasmolysis and what causes it?
    When a cell shrinks due to a loss of water through osmosis
  21. What is active transport?
    Channels (pumps) move molecules from low to high concentration (against gradient) must expend energy
  22. Why is carbon the element upon which all organic compounds and therefore, life is based?
    Because carbon can form 4 covalent bonds in 3 spatial dimensions
  23. What is the name given to the diffusion (with the gradient) of molecules through specific protein channels?
    Facilitated diffusion
  24. What is the general name given to the process in which a cell engulfs solid particles or droplets of dissolved solutes and brings them inside the cell?
    Endocytosis
  25. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing solid particles?
    Phagocytosis
  26. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing droplets of dissolved solutes?
    Pinocytosis
  27. Where does aerobic cellular respiration take place?
    Mitochondria
  28. What is found in animal cells but not in plant cells?
    Centrioles (and lysosomes)
  29. What is a microscopic network of membranous tubules that run throughout the cytoplasm and are in contact with both the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane?
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ribosomes attached=rough, no ribosomes=smooth)
  30. Why is there a large amount of membranous organelles in the endoplasmic reticulum?
    It allows for more surface area for reactions to take place and it divides the cell into compartments
  31. Where are amino acids sequenced (protein synthesis)?
    Ribosomes
  32. What organelle repackages cell products and transports them to the plasma membrane in vesicles, to be eventually secreted out of the cell by exocytosis?
    Golgi complex
  33. Which is thought to be an accumulation of ribosomal RNA?
    The nucleolus
  34. Where is chromatin found?
    The nucleus
  35. What composes chromatin and what is contained inside of it?
    Composed of proteins called histones; contains DNA
  36. What are the contents of the nucleus collectively called?
    The nucleoplasm

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