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Muscles of the head
- divided into 6 subgroups
- mm. of face
- mm. of eye
- mm. of ear
- mm. of mastication
- mm. of palate and fauces
- mm. of the tongue
mm. of the face
- 22 mm.
- "muscles of facial expression"
- most are paired
- muscle of the scalp
- 3 bellies attached to epicranial aponeurosis
- ORIGIN: (all bellies) epicranial aponeeurosis
- insertion: occipital belly - occiptial bone; frontal belly - skin of eyebrow and nose; lateral bellies- muscle and cartilage of auricle
- ACTION: move scalp, "wiggle ears"
orbicularis oculi m.
- muscle encircles the eyelids
- ACTION: close eyelids
orrugator supercilii m.
- small m. which LIES DEEP TO FRONTAL BELLY OF EPICRANIUS M.
- "frown muscle"
- ORIGIN: orbicularis oculi m. and nasal prominence of frontal bone
- INSERTION: skin of eyebrow
- ACTION: draw eyebrow inward and down, stink eye or frown
levator labii superioris m.
- located above upper lip,DEEP
- ORIGIN: maxilla and zygomatic bone
- INSERTION: into orbicularis oris m.
- ACTION: elevate upper lip
orbicularis oris m.
- muscle encircling the oral opening
- ACTION: close and purse lips
levator anguli oris m.
- located DEEP to zygomaticus minor m.
- ORIGIN: maxilla (canine fossa)
- INSERTION: orbicularis oris m. and skin at corner of mouth
- ACTION: raises angle of mouth
zygomaticus major m.
- larger of two zygo. m.
- ORIGIN: zygomatic bone (near temporal process)
- INSERTION: orbicularis oris m. at corner of mouth
- ACTION: draw upper lip back and upward
zygomaticus minor m.
- smaller of two zygo. m.
- ORIGIN: zygomatic bone (near zygomaticomaxillary suture)
- INSERTION: orbicularis oris m. and levator labii superioris m.
- ACTION: draw upper lip up and laterally
depressor labii inferioris m.
- lies BELOW orbicularis oris m. of lower lip
- ORIGIN: anterior aspect of mandible (btwn mandibular symphysis and mental foramen)
- INSERTION: INTO orbicularis oris m. (and skin) of lower lip
- ACTION: depress lower lip
depressor anguli oris m.
- lies lateral to depressor labii inferioris m. on each side
- ORIGIN: anterior aspect of mandible
- INSERTION: into orbicularis oris m. (and other mm) near corner of mouth
- ACTION: depress corner of mouth
- located across bridge of nose and within wing of nost
- subdivided into: transverse and alar parts
- ORIGIN: maxilla
- INSERTION: into contralateral muscle (over bridge of nose) and into ala of nose
- ACTION: wrinkle nose and dilate nostrils
muscles of mastication
- 4 pairs involved in elevating the mandible (closing the jaw), moving it from side to side, and protracting
- temporalis m., masseter m, lateral pterygoid m., and medial pterygoid m.
- broad, fan-shaped muscle located in the temporal fossa of the skull
- ORIGIN: temporal fossa of skull
- INSERTION: coronaid process (and adjacent ramus) of mandible
- ACTION: elevate mandible (clinch teeth)
- large m. located near angle of mandible
- ORIGIN: temporal fossa of skull
- INSERTION: coronoid process and lateral aspect of ramus of mandible (down to the angle)
- ACTION: elevate mandible (clinch teeth)
lateral pterygoid m.
- muscle of mastication that functions primarily to protract the mandible (has two heads, upper and lower. not quoted in textbook)
- ORIGIN: later wall of pterygoid process and adjacent wing of sphenoid bone
- INSERTION: condyloid process of mandible and articular disc of temporomandibular joint
- ACTION:protract mandible, depress mandible (weakly)
medial pterygoid m.
- larger of two pterygoid m
- ORIGIN: btwn madial and lateral walls of pterygoid process of sphenoid bone, palatine bone and maxilla
- INSERTION:medial aspect of mandible (near angle)
- ACTION: elevate mandible and move laterally
- NOTICE NO M. IN NAME!
- (pla tez ma)
- subcutaneous m. on neck, covers much of lower face and ant. neck
- ORIGIN: fascia over pectoralis major m. and deltoideus m.
- INSERTION: depress lower lip, wrinkle skin of neck and upper chest
- (ster no kle do mas toi de us)
- well develoved m. angles up to head from sternum and clavicle
- name references all three of it's attachment points.
- ORIGIN: manubrium of sternum and sternal extremity of clavicle
- INSERTIONS: mastoid process of temporal bone
- ACTION: turn head toward opposite side (if acting unilaterally); flex joints of cervical vertebral column (if acting bilaterally)
muscles of thorax
11, are not subdivided
pectoralis major m.
- most powerful flexor of shoulder joint
- divided into clavicular, sternal and abdominal parts
- ORIGIN: clavicle, sternum, first 6 ribs and aponeurosis of external abdominal oblique m.
- INSERTION: crest of greater tubercle of humerus (lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
- ACTION: flex shoulder joint, adduct and medially rotate limb at shoulder joint
pectoralis minor m.
- smaller of two pectoralis m.
- LIES DEEP TO PECTORALIS MAJOR M. AND COMPLETELY COVERED BY IT!
- ORIGIN: ribs 3-5/6 near costochondral joints
- INSERTION: coracoid process of scapula
- ACTION: draw scapula anterior and down, elevate ribs
serratus anterior m.
- mostly covered by latissimus dorsi muscle, name is derived from "saw-tooth" appearance of it's origin on ribs
- ORIGIN: center of lateral aspects of first 8 or 9 ribs
- INSERTION: medial border of scapula (from superior angle to inferior angle)
- ACTION: rotate scapula and pull it forward, elevate ribs
external intercostal mm.
- the "outer" of two main groups. On front of thoracic cage, fibers are directed antero-inferiorly
- ORIGIN: inferior borders of ribs
- INSERTION: superior borders of ribs (each one inserts into the rib below it's origin)
- ACTION: elevate ribs (to increase the volume in the thoracic cavity); maintain tension in the intercostal spaces
internal intercostal mm.
- the "inner" of tow groups of muscles which occupty the intercostal spaces. On front of thoracic cage, fibers are directed postero-inferiorly
- ORIGIN: inferior borders of ribs
- INSERTION: superior borders of ribs (each on inserts into the rib below it's origin
- ACTION: depress the ribs (to degrease the volume in the thoracic cavity), maintain tension in the intercostal spaces
- 3 regional groups
- mm. of abdominal wall, prelvic diaphragm, and urogenital diaphragm
- 4 principle mm. of abdominal wall: rectus abdominis m., external and internal abdominal oblique mm., and the transversus abdominis m.
rectus abdominis m.
- the "straight abdominal" m.
- ORIGIN: crest and symphysis of pubis
- INSERTION: xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages 5,6,7
- ACTION: draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column), compress abdomen
tendinous intersections of the rectus abdominis m.
horizontal, across the rectus abdominis m. form the rippled appearance of the tensed abdomen in slender, highly-conditioned individuals
sheath of the rectus abdominis m.
a well-developed conn. t.p. envelope surrounds the muscle belly of rectus abdominis m.
the midline btwn the bellies of left/right rectus abdominis m
external abdominal oblique m.
- the more superficial of the two abdominal oblique m.
- from anterior aspect, fibers angle down and anteriorly in same general manner as those of the external intercostal mm. of the thorax.
- ORIGIN: ribs 5-12INSERTION: anterior lamina of the sheath of rectus abdominis m. (and thence to the linea alba), anterior half of iliac crest (lateral aspect), inguinal ligament
- ACTION: draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column, compress abdomen), rotate vertebral column if contracted unilaterally
the inferior border of the abdominal aponeurosis thickens to form the inguinal ligament, which courses from the anterior superior ilia spine to the pubis tubercle
internal abdominal oblique m.
- the deeper of the two abdominal oblique mm.
- fibers are angled down and posteriory.
- when this aponeurosis reaches the edge of the rectus abdominis muscle, IT SPLITS with one layer joining the anterior lamina and the other forming the poserior lamina of the sheath of the rectus abdominis m.
- ORIGIN: anterior half of crest of ilium, lumbar fascia, iliac fascia, inguinal ligament
- INSERTION: ribs 10-23, sheath of rectus abdominis m. (and thence to linea alba)
- ACTION: draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column), compress abdomen, rotate vertebral column
transversus abdominix m.
- deepest muscle of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall
- fibers are almost horizontally oriented.
- ORIGIN: costal cartilages of ribs 7-12, lumbar fascia, iliac crest, ingiunal ligament
- INSERTION: xiphoid process of sternum
- ACTION: compress abdomen
the muscles enclosing the floor of the pelvic cavity...
(btwn the pubes anteriorly and the ischiatic tubers posteriorly) are divided by position of the rectum into an anterior group comprising the urogenital diaphragm and a posterior group forming the pelvic diaphragm
mm. which form the anterior floor of the pelvic cavity
muscles which form the posterior portion of the pelvic floor
- large triangluar m. that is located SUPERFICIALLY ON POSTERIOR ASPECT OF NECK AND UPPER BACK
- name is derived from the diamond shape (trapezoid) formed by left and right muscles
- ORIGIN: occipital bone, spinous processes of C7 and thoracic vertebrae
- INSERTION: clavicle, spine and acromion of scapula
- ACTION: draw head laterally or posteriorly, rotate scapula
latissimus dorsi m.
- large, superficial muscle that ENVELOPES THE BACK FROM the level of deltoideus m. down to the os coxae
- broadest m. of back; upper, medial portion is partly covered by trapezius m.
- ORIGIN: spinous processes of lower 5 or 6 thoacic vertebrae, those of lumbar vert. and median sacral crest
- INSERTION: w/ teres major m. into the medial border of intertubercular groove (crest of lesser tubercle) of humerus
- ACTION: adduct limb @ shoulder joint, rotate limb medially at shoulder jt, extend shoulder jt.
- *most powerful "pull-up" m.
Rhomboideus major m.
- larger of 2 rhomboideus mm.
- located DEEP TO TRAPEZIUS M. btwn the medial border of scapula and spinous processes of vertebrae
- ORIGIN: spinous porcesses (and corresponding supraspinous ligaments) of thoracic vertebrae 2-5
- INSERTION: medial border of scapula below lever of it's spine
- ACTION: pull (retract) scapula toward vertebral column
Rhomboideus minor m.
- smaller rhomboideus m
- located DEEP TO TRAPEZIUS M., just SUPERIOR to rhomboideus major m.
- ORIGIN: spinous processes of C7 and T1
- INSERTION: medial border of scapula at the level of it's spine
- ACTION: pull scapula toward vertebral column and slightly superiorly
levator scapulae m.
- muscle located DEEP to trapezius m. and LATERAL TO rhomboideus minor m.
- ORIGIN: transverse process of first cervical vertebrae
- INSERTION: superior angle of scapula
- ACTION: elevate scapula
erector spinae mm
- group of muscles which lie adjacent to the spinous processes of the vertebrae
- covered by trapezius m, latissimus dori m., and rhomboideus mm.
- consists of medial spinalis m, the intermediate longissimus m. and lateral iliocostalis m.
- ATTACHMENTS: transverse processes of vertebrae, ribs and ilium
- ACTIONS: extend joints of vertebral column (bilateral contraction), bend trunk laterally (unilateral contraction)