Biology Chapter 3

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amcmullen
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202648
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Biology Chapter 3
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2013-02-22 19:39:11
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Molecules of Life
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  1. Organic
    Describes a compound that consists primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms
  2. Molecules of Life
    • Lipids
    • Amino Acids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
  3. Condensation
    Process by which enzymes build large molecules from smaller subunits; water also forms
  4. Enzyme
    Compound (usually a protein) that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it
  5. Functional Group
    A group of atoms bonded to a carbon of an organic compound; imparts a specific chemical property to the molecule
  6. Hydrocarbon
    Compound that consists only of carbon and hydrogen atoms
  7. Hydrolysis
    Process by which an enzyme breaks a molecule into smaller subunits by attaching a hydroxyl group to one part and a hydrogen atom to another
  8. Metabolism
    All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells aquire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules
  9. Monomers
    Molecules that are subunits of polymers
  10. Polymer
    Molecule that consists of multiple monomers
  11. Reaction
    Process of molecular change
  12. Carbohydrate
    Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio
  13. Cellulose
    Polysaccharide; major structural material in plants
  14. Disaccharide
    Polymer of two sugar subunits
  15. Glycogen
    Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in animal cells
  16. Monosaccharide
    Simple sugar; monomer of polysaccharides
  17. Polysaccharide
    Polymer of many monosaccharides
  18. Starch
    Polysaccharide; energy reservoir in plant cells
  19. Fat
    Lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails
  20. Fatty Acid
    Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end. Carbon chain of saturated fat types has single bonds only; that of unsaturated types has one or more double bonds
  21. Lipid
    Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound
  22. Lipid Bilayer
    Double layer of lipids arranged tail to tail; structural foundation of all cell membranes
  23. Phospholipid
    A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails; main constituent of eukaryotic cell membranes
  24. Saturated Fatty Acid
    Fatty acid that contains no carbon-carbon double bonds
  25. Steroid
    Type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails
  26. Triglyceride
    A fat with three fatty acid tails
  27. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
    Fatty acid that has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its tail
  28. Wax
    Water-repellent mixture of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings
  29. Amino Acid
    Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins. Consists of a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom
  30. Peptide Bond
    A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another, joins amino acids in proteins
  31. Polypeptide
    Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
  32. Protein
    Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptides)
  33. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate. Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups
  34. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits; consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix
  35. Nucleic Acid
    Single or double stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar-phosphate bonds - DNA, RNA
  36. Nucleotide
    Monomer of nucleic acids; has a five carbon sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and phosphate groups
  37. RNA
    Ribonucleic acid. Some types have roles in protein synthesis

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