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Example of hinge joint
One joint surface swivels around another. The only movements possible are flexion and extension.
Hinge Joints are also called
4 basic joint types:
- Hinge joints
- Gliding joints
- Pivot joints
- Ball-and-socket joints
Example of gliding joint
Carpus and TMJ
"Rocking joints” The main movement possible are flexion and extension, but some abduction and adduction may also be possible. You can flex, extend, as well as move it side to side.
One bone rotates on another. The only movement possible is rotation.
Example of Pivot joint
Shoulder joint and carpus
Pivot joints are also known as __________.
Example of ball-and-socket joint
Shoulder and hip joints
These joints permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction.
Ball-and–Socket joints are also called
Distension of joint capsule of hock; swelling on the craniomedial aspect of hock
Degenerative Joint Disease of distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints
Bone spavin (jack spavin)
Inflammation of any bursa. Joints that don’t
have synovial capsule have bursa (water sac).
Bursitis in dogs develop tumor of the bursa called ___________
Inflammation of bursa over olecranon process
Inflammation of bursa over calcaneus. Over the calcaneus of the tarsal joint.
Inflammation of carpal joint capsule and/or ligaments
- Common name: Popped knee
Components of joint displaced
Inflammation or infection with draining tract from bursa over spinous processes.
- Etiology: Brucellosis. Draining tract that goes nowhere has infection.
- Cause: Irritation of saddle
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Luxation of sacroiliac joint. Not a true
joint it is a ligament
Inflammation of laminae between hoof wall and distal phalanx
- Common name: founder
Inflammation of navicular bursa and bone, often with involement of associated tendons
Periostitis of proximal phalanx and/or distal metacarpus III, with capitis of fetlock joint. Goes all the way around the bone
Inflammation or infection of bursa over atlas (C1). Also over the occipital bone where ligament of nuchae attaches- if it gets inflamed it is called ______________.
Infection of collateral cartilages of distal phalanx. Infection comes up through the foot. Agent is ____, ___________.
Gets between the lamina and side of bone and migrates upward. Comes out at the top of the coffin bone.
- Agent is gravel, barbed wire.
Osteophyte formation of interphalangeal joints.
Ossification of collateral cartilages of distal phalanx
Inflammation and exostosis involving joint between cannon bone and a splint bone (usually medial)
Stretching of ligaments of any joint
Inadvertent locking of patella over medial ridge of femoral trochlea, holds patella and hock in extension
Stifling (upward fixation of the patella – knee can’t flex or extend)
Excessive stretching of muscle and/or tendon
Synovitis of fetlock joint or tenosynovitis of digital flexor tendons in region of fetlock. Similar to tendosynovitis/Bow Tendon. Swelling along the edges of the tendons of fetlock
Wind puffs (wind gall)
Thrush - Bacterial infection of the frogg
- Founder (Common Name)/Laminitis (Scientific
- Name) – Most common illness of horses
- Cause: Change in diet or overfeeding –
- Infection of the sensitive lamina.
- Coffin bone rotates forward and down – it
- tips and rotates downward. Can cut through the bottom of the hoof.
- TX: Orthopedic shoes and keep the hooves
Sidebone. Bone develops beyond the coffin bone and causes swelling. Puts pressure on the short pastern called side bone
- Ringbone. Can effect the joint of the long pastern and short pastern; OR short pastern and coffin bone. Goes all the way around.
- Common in working horses like the Quarter Horse.
- Splints - Lameness injury
- Separation of the splint and cannon bone. Fibrous tissue builds up and calcification on the side.
- Occurs: interosseous metacarpal 2 and 3 or 3 and 4.
- Cause: Horses that start and stop or turn i.e. Cattle herding.
- If you cut it out it will grow back
- Tendenosynovitis – Inflammation of the bursa.
- Cause: Stretch of a tendon = strain
- Location: behind the cannon bone
- Common name in TX: Low Bow
- Tx: Soak in hot water then cold water alternating and wrap leg. Discourage movement - rest
- Popped Knee.
- Carpitis – Inflammation of the carpal bone
- Dropped Elbow- Radial nerve damage/injury
- that is responsible for extension of the limb. Lose extension of the elbow.
- Affects: Knee & Fetlock joint.
- Cause: Caught in fence and banged it. Most of the time it is a bruise
- Jack/Bone Sprain
- Occurs in tarsal joint
- Cause: build up in joint, swollen hock
Term that refers to joints
arthro- and articular
study of joints
3 Types of Joints:
a. Immovable Fibrous Joints i.e. sutures/fissures in the cranium.
b. Slightly movable Cartilaginous Joints – between vertebrae where intervertebral – rocking type motion
- c. Freely movable Synovial Joints – in
- appendages i.e. tarsal joint/fetlock joint, phalanges. Freely movable joints give the most trouble.
Joints where the bones are firmly united by fibrous tissue are called ___________.
Scientific name: _____________
- Fibrous Joints
- Scientific name: synarthroses
- Descriptive: immovable
- Examples: Sutures, fibrous splint bones where you have intraosseous type of ligaments with the large metacarpal 2 to 3 and metatarsal bones 4 to 3.
Joints that are capable of only a slight rocking
movement are ____________.
Scientific name: __________
Descriptive name: _________
- Cartilaginous Joints
- Scientific name: amphiarthrosis
- Descriptive name: Slightly movable
- Examples: intervertebral disks between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae, pubic symphysis, ischial symphysis and mandibular symphysis in some animals
__________ are what we usually think of when we hear the word joint. Most problems occur here
Also known as:
- Synovial joints
- Scientific name: diarthroses
- Also known as diarthrodial joint
- Descriptive name: Freely movable
- Example: shoulder joint, tarsal joint, fetlock joint, phalanges, stifle joint, femur and acetabulum; humerus and scapula; ulna/radius and humerus; tibia/fibula and femur
First freely movable joint is the ___________. It has two types of movement
- Temporal-mandibular joint.
- Two types of movement hinge joint & gliding joint
The ________is a true diarthrodial joint because it is a ball and socket
joint that can move in all directions
List 4 Synovial Joint Characteristics
A. Articular surfaces on the bones
- B. Articular cartilage (hyaline) covering the
- surface – keep bones from rubbing together.
- C. Fluid filled joint cavity in joint capsule
- (Synovial fluid)
D. Ligaments may be present to stabilize.
form the wall of the capsule.
- Extracapsular ligament =
- Medial and lateral collateral ligaments–
anterior and posterior cruciate ligament
Fluid-filled potential space between the joint surfaces
The joint cavity, called the joint space
The outer layer of capsule = extracapsular ligament
Lining layer - produces the synovial fluid that lubricates the joint surfaces.
Synovial fluid is ____________
- Synovial membrane
The round condyles of the femur sit on top of the flattish condyles of the tibia, supported only by one (with 2 sides) shallow, concave, half-moon-shaped cartilage structures called the
Medial and lateral meniscus
Provides support on the front of the joint
- Patella tendon,
- AKA patellar ligament
On the medial and lateral sides of the joint, two strap-like structures connect the femur and the tibia
Two ligaments inside the joint that cross each other in an “X” shape. They help prevent the bones of the stifle from sliding back and forth as the joint bends and straighten
Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
Effects young dogs and is due to a deficiency of mineralization of bone and cartilage. This in turn is due to a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet.
- 1. decrease in the calcium & phosphorus in take from the diet;
- 2. ratio of calcium and phosphorus is not 2:1 but instead is allowed to go to 1:1;
- 3. inability to absorb minerals due to a deficiency in vitamin D
- 4. gut abnormalities that effect absorption
Seen mostly in:
- Adult Rickets
- Seen mostly in: older dogs or cats.
- Causes: Same as Rickets,
- Effect: The major site of osteogenesis in the young animal rests in the epiphysis and so the signs are more dramatic in the growth plate. In the older dog, lack of mineralization of the osteoid is the adult skeleton has its effect just beneath the periosteum and endosteum since continual remodeling occurs here throughout life. (thin)
- Cause: disease of cats which consumes large amounts of raw liver.
- Pathology: cervical and thoracic bridging exostosis and limb ankylosis at elbow.
- Differential Diagnosis: Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism & Hypovitaminosis D
- Diagnosis: radiographs of exostoses and enthesophyte in the thoracic vertebrae of older cats.
Use of artificial material in the repair of a defect of the bone or the site of attachment of a muscle or ligament to bone.
Scurvy (Ascorbic Acid Def)
- Cause: This is a deficiency of ascorbic acid brought on by a non-complete or balanced diet. Vitamin C is essential in the formation of the osteoid and dentine in connective tissue.
- Signs: Seen at epiphyseal plates of long bones, costochondral junctions, and anywhere the growth is rapid and vascularity is prominent. Dislocations are common.
- Breeders suggestion: many breeders insist that buyers of their litter keep the dogs on mega doses of ascorbic acid all of the animals life.
Signs noted with achondroplastic dogs:
Description:specific type of dwarfism which is inherited and congenital, affecting epiphyseal (achondroplastic) growth and maturation.
- Signs noted with achondroplastic dogs:
- a. widening of the ends of long bones
- b. hydrocephalus
- c. brachycephaly
- d. prognathism
- Veterinarians classification: Mendelian dominant gene characteristic as abnormal, although accepted by the general public
Osteochondritis dissecans OCD
- Etiology: This condition is a direct result of epiphyseal ischemia necrosis in which a
- small segment of sub-chondral bone in the bony epiphysis of the head of the humerus is involved.
Cause: Trauma/Inheritance factors
Diagnosis: examination of the leg (shoulder) usually causes a little discomfort with forward extension. The joint mouse, from the sub-chondral bone, will lodge in the joint and cause pain.
Ununited Anconeal Process
- Description: Traumatic dislodgement of the anconeal process of the elbow resulting
- in a non-union or partial union of the process. In the case of a non-union a joint mouse or ossicle is formed.
- Cause: Trauma/Inheriatance
- (3 dominant genes are involved. Breeding is contraindicated.
Breed: large breeds 5-6 months
Calve-Legg Perthes Disease -
- AKA Osteochondrosis Deformans Juvenilis
- Description: This is similar to Osteochondritis dissecans except that it involves the entire head of the femur and not just a small bone sub-condral area of the front leg.
Cause: epiphyseal ischemia with necrosis of the entire head and neck of the femur.
Breed: Lap dogs