CH. 18

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    To make free from disease-producing organisms.
  2. Antiseptic
    A chemical used on living objects.
  3. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)
    Organisms that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL's), enzymes that gives bacteria immunity to both pennicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics.
  4. Pathogens
    Microorganisms that are capable of harming people.
  5. Sepsis
    Poisoning of tissues
  6. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
    When a pt is referred to as "septic," it means that he or she is displaying the manifestations of a systemic inflammatory state caused by widespread microbial destruction of tissues. It is accompanied by fevers, tachycardia, hypotension, and luekocytosis.
  7. Infectious disease
    Refers to the pathologic events that result from the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a host.
  8. Oppurtunistic infections
    Infections that do not result in disease in individuals with properly functioning immune systems.
  9. Prions
    Are infectious agents composed primarily of proteins that cause abnormal folding of proteins in brain and neural tissues. ie. BSE- bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows and CJD- Cruetzfeldt- Jacob Disease in humans.
  10. Pathogenicity
    Is the organisms ability to harm and to cause disease.
  11. Virulence
    Relates to the vigor with which the organism can grow and multiply.
  12. Specificity
    Refers to the organism's attraction to a specific host.
  13. Carriers
    Patients may become infected from people who have active disease, people in the incubation portion of their disease, or people who harbor pathogens but have no symptoms of disease.
  14. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
    Is a term that encompasses infections contracted in all healthcare settings and is often used in place of the more commonly known term, nosocomial infection.
  15. Nosocomial infection
    Refers only to hospital - acquired infection.
  16. Medical asepsis
    Refers to measures taken to control and reduce the number of pathogens present.
  17. Surgical asepsis
    Refers to "sterile technique." To be sterile an object must be free from all microorganisms.
  18. Hand hygiene
    Includes handwashing with soap and water or cleansing the hands with waterless alcohol-based cleanser to prevent the spread of infection.
  19. Disinfectant
    A chemical used on lifeless objects.
  20. Bactericidal
    A chemical is bactericidal if it kills microorganisms.
  21. Bacteriostatic
    An agent that prevents bacterial multiplication but does not kill all forms of the organism.
  22. Sterilization
    Refers to the complete destruction of all microorganisms, including spores.
  23. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
    Techniques or equipment that prevents the transfer of pathogens from one person to another are referred to as "barriers" or PPE.
  24. Isolation
    Refers to techniques used to prevent or limit the spread of infection.
  25. Standard Precautions
    Decreases the risk of transmission from blood borne pathogens and transmission from moist body substances.
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CH. 18
2013-02-23 01:13:39

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