Social Work

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Social Work
2013-02-23 20:51:24

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  1. Which is not considered a type of macropractice
  2. Libraries, parks and recreation, tax codes, and family law are examples of
    • Social policy, but not social welfare
    • policy
  3. Which level of policy is most likely to be described as “administrative”?
  4. Which of the following is NOT a function or purpose of policy
    Deciding political elections
  5. Which type of benefit is the most ethical as measured by the degree of self-determination it promotes with the client?
    Cash benefits
  6. Selective allocation of social welfare benefits is
    • Efficient.
    • Need-based.
    • Without right to the benefit.
  7. What are the four types of descriptive policy analysis?
    Content, choice, comparative, and historical
  8. The two major choices of the basis of allocation of benefits are
    Universal or selective
  9. The two parts to a quantitative evaluation are
    • Effectiveness (outcome) and efficiency
    • (cost-effectiveness) evaluations
  10. “Maternalistic Reforms” are associated with
    The Progressive era
  11. “Federalism” relates to
    The balance of power/responsibilty between the federal, state, and local governments
  12. Why do sociologists claim that objective conditions are not sufficient explanations
    of how social problems are defined
    Social problems are socially constructed
  13. What is the best explanation for the difference between a primary and a derivative
    • A primary problem is the cause; a derivative
    • problem is the consequence
  14. Which correctly identifies the sequence of steps in a social/economic analysis?
    • Boundaries, problem, facts, theories, values,
    • goals, hypotheses, and economics
  15. Less eligibility refers to
    • A principle of financial assistance policy that restricts welfare benefits in comparison to
    • the least comfortable working person
  16. American individualism, in the broadest
    terms, means:
    Impatience with restraints upon economic activity.
  17. Legislation to resolve racism, sexism, and other prejudices is best explained by
    A conflict of values
  18. Which of the following is not included in an economic analysis of a social welfare
    Identification of funding mechanisms to support the policy
  19. Three reasons for the dominance of micro-practice in social work
    • –Clients
    • have immediate needs and cannot wait for changes in systems and/or policies

    • –Conservative
    • nature of U.S. sociey
    •     ~One notions of “rugged individualism”            going back to Calvinism

    • –Professionalism (thank you Dr. Flexner!)
    • “Market-based profession
  20. Time and societal change has resulted in
    •Social work occurring in organizational settings

    •Knowledge about educationally communicable techniques

    •Reduced autonomy among all professions
  21. How does policy effect practice?
    –Determines goals of services

    –Determines characteristics of clientele

    –Determines who will get services and when

    –Specifies or restricts options for clients

    –Determines theoretical focus of services
    • •THE

    • •A

  23. Conservatism
    • -Views individuals as flawed and governed by uncontrollable  impulses
    • -laws and restrictions are needed to control and/or punish these flawed individuals
    • -emphasizes social order and hierarchy
    • -uses religion as the moral authority
    • -38% of public
  24. Libertarianism
    • -Individuals are rational, competitive, and dedicated to self-interests
    • -When everyone pursues self interest, general welfare of all promotes
    • -Laws/regulations impede the pursuit of self interests and thus should be minimized
  25. Liberalism
    • -Regards individuals rational and dedicated to self interests
    • -individuals are not equally capable to compete due to social, education, and family backgrounds
    • -general welfare of all depends on being able to provide all with equal ability to compete
    • -28% of public
  26. Radicalism
    • -competition causes strife and leads to social division and alienation; little sense of community
    • -general welfare is only possible in an classless society
    • -no one holds power over another and needs of people always come first
  27. Feminism
    • -Sexism is an arbitrary and oppressive constraint on women and men
    • -Welfare of society depends on the equal opportunity to participate
    • -Male control deprives women of power and self determination
  28. How is public policy made in the united states?
    • —Public policy made through a deliberative process involving two bodies of elected
    • officials

    • —These two, Senate & House of Representatives (Congress), make up the legislature
    • (applies to federal & state)
  29. —Public policy should reflect the interests of all citizens to the greatest extent possible. Is this ideal realized?

    • “Because
    • social workers & their clients tend to be comparatively powerless, a critical analysis of the policy process is all the more important”
  30. What three steps are needed for a bill to become law?
    -A majority of the House of Representatives must vote for it.

    -A majority of the Senate must vote for it.

    -The President must then sign it.
  31. What are Subcommittees
    • -In each house of Congress, bills are
    • given to committees.
    • -Since a committee cannot handle the many
    • bills that come to it, committees have subcommittees
    •     ~Sub-committee may choose not even to
    •       'hear’ the bill
    •     ~The sub-committee can, if it chooses,
    •        study the bill and may recommend              changes-> revised bill is called the
    •        ‘markup’
    •     ~Hearings
    •     ~Vote to move back to committee
  32. —Elitist Policy Perspective
    • Representing power structure, the control
    • of social policy to maintain current status quo
  33. —Pluralist Policy Perspective
    • Social policy is sum total of trade-offs
    • among different interest groups all having equal opportunity to participate
  34. Incremental Policy Perspective
    • Social Policy is a ‘bit by bit’ process
    • as opposed to massive paradigm shifts (eg, Social Security)
  35. —Liberal Evolutionary Policy Perspective
    • Over time, social policy will expand so
    • basic needs of all will be guaranteed as rights
  36. 1 of 4 stages of policy process
    -The taking of a idea, problem, or issue and turning it into a policy/bill

    -In 18th-19th century, done by elected officials themselves

    • -Industrialization brought in a more complicated process attempts at seeking “social intelligence”
    • via policy institutes & think tanks

    • -Now done mainly by staffers, think tanks, lobby groups, advocacy groups, policy
    • institutes, etc.

    -Agenda setting, media, timing, etc. important
  37. 2 of 4 stages of policy process
    -Soft money—non-regulated donations

    • -Contributions made to political parties
    • with specific affiliations

    • -2000: Democrats = $206.6 million,
    • Republicans = $242.5 million

    • -Became controversial (donations of
    • unknown origin; clearly partisan)

    • -McCain-Feingold Campaign Finance Reform
    • Act signed 2002

    -Citizens United decision
  38. 3 of 4 stages of policy process
    • -Critical phase as some enacted bills/policies are never implemented
    •    ~Lack of Resources
    •    ~Administrative rules issued that all but negate intent of bill/policy

    -Chronic problem for social welfare programs

    -Can lead to not being in compliance with law
  39. Stage 4 of 4 of policy process
    • -Has the bill/policy had its “intended”
    • effect
    •   ~Also, what “unintended”           effects/consequences have emerged

    • -Assume bill/policy has objective measures
    • connected to it
    •   ~“Rationalists”
    •   ~“Social Activists” 

    • -Federal level: Government Accountability Office; Congressional Budget Office; &
    • others

    -State level: similar entities/units

    • -May be performed by ‘contractors’, some of
    • whom may have ‘agendas’
    •     ~Evaluation research is a major industry
  40. Religious shit about Social welfare
    —-Roots of social welfare go deep into Jedeo-Christian tradition

    -—“Societal structures in ancient Judaism encoded protections for the most powerless (the poor, the orphan, and the widow)”

    • -—The eventual dominance of Christian tradition in Europe and the near identification of church with state during the medieval period led to gradual assumption of
    • government responsibility for social welfare
  41. —Statue of Laborers in 1349
    -Set maximum pay rates – able-body people men must work

    -Poverty is a crime
  42. —Henrician Poor Law of 1536
    • -Classifies types of poor people
    • -Taxes to pay for aid
    • -Shifts responsibility from church to state
  43. English Poor Laws 1601
    • Defining point in history of social welfare
    • Employed the concept of mandatory local taxation to social and financial assistance
    • Levels of charity according to worthiness
    •   -work for those deemed employable
    •   -apprenticeships for children
    • Indoor vs outdoor relief
    • Established the responsibility of local gvt to provide relief for the needy
    •   -residency requirements
  44. Speenhamland Law 1795
    • Dissatisfaction with poor laws
    • created concept of a poverty line based on price of bread
  45. Calvinism (english tradition)
    • If you work hard, you will prosper; if not you will be poor
    • moral failing
  46. Localism (english tradition)
    local government responsible for the poor
  47. Less eligibility (English tradition)
    Poor should have a lower standard of living than lowest paid laborer
  48. Colonial Period (1619-1783)
    • Many early settlers were misfits or criminals exiled from europe
    • Economy primarily agricultural with some trades;plantations in the south
    • Politics satellite of england and the king
    • social movement riots, rebellion
    • Early means of assistance:
    •    -auctioning the poor
    •    -placement with a family
    •    -outdoor relief>aid to individuals in their   own homes
    •    -indoor relief>almshouses or poor farms
  49. Independence to civil war (1783-1865)
    • economy-industrial revolution and rise of laborers who worked for others; trade unions
    • politics-slavery was key issue; on a different level, what type of labor system was needed
    • ideology-the dream of being middle class; women are weaker gender with traditional role; 'moral behavior' would eliminate poverty
    • social movement-abolition movement, womens rights, to improve poor conditions
    • responsibility for poor continue continue at local effort; more emphasis on indoor relief; early beginnings of charity org. soc.
  50. 1800's
    • society for prevention of pauperism
    • saw industrial revolution
    •     -overcrowding, families spread apart,
    •      mutual aid is more difficult
  51. Dorothea Dix
    • Better mental hospitals
    • lobbied us congress to sell federal lands to build new hospitals
    •    -bill passed but vetoed by president pierce as social welfare is local/state responsibility, not federal
  52. End of Civil War to progressive era (1865-1900)
    • Economy-rise of corporations and monopolies; unregulated capitalism; various economic panics
    • Politics-dominated by republicans  labor strife in the north; courts dominated government with many state laws overturn
    • Ideology-Darwin and social Darwinism
    • Social Movements-Labor movement in the North; KKK in the south, populism
  53. Progressive Era to New deal (1900-1932)
    Economy/Politics/Socials movments
    • Economy- Break up monopolies but creation of oligopolies; regulatory reforms; creation of professionalism managerial class; market crash of 29
    • Politics-political machines are corruptions; states gain more power and social welfare stalls
    • Ideology-Progressive ideology combines moralism and empirical analysis; gather date about poor
    • Social movement-Rise of radical left; NAACP; womens suffrage
    • creation of profession of social work
  54. Progressive Era to New Deal (1900-1932)
    • Beginning of alternative perspective of pverty and social problems
    •     ~not fault of ind, but structure of society
    • Maternalistic reforms-prohibition was pinnacle of this era
    • Early Federal initiatives in social welfare policy
    •     ~vocational Rehab
    •     ~Sheppard Towner Maternal At
  55. New Deal to World War II (1932-1945)
    • Depression started in 1929 and became an equalizer
    • Everyone adversely affected bacame part of the worthy poor
    • Massive govt response creating very large and very popular social welfare programs
    •    ~WPA
    •    ~Social Security
  56. New Deal to World War II 91932-1945)
    Economy/Politics/Ideology/Social Movements
    • Economy-depression;unemployment is 25%; massive govt stimulus; corporations are kept afloat by allowing price fixing production quotas
    • Politics- A new federalism but strong states involvement 
    • Ideology-a sense of greater inclusion of all groups and need for social welfare
    • social movements-various unemployed inclusion of all groups and need for social welfare
    • social movement- various unemployed groups, some militant; townsend movement/plan, rise of labor unions
    • social security, ADC , Unemployment Insurance, job creation programs
  57. Federalism
    • Refers to the multiple level of government (local, state, federal) and the role and responsibilities of each
    • Balance and power between each shift over time
    • somewhat unique to the united states
    • explain somewhat the phenomena of AMERICAN ECEPTIONALISM
  58. Post World War II to the great society (1946-1960)
    • Economy-Time or prosperity and income growth; rise of the middle class and fringe benefits like pension
    • Political- primarily republican; the cold war; mcCarthyism; Korean wars
    • ideology-progressivism
    • social moments-beginning of civil rights, womens movements
  59. Great society (1960-1970)
    • invisible poor became visible
    • economic opportunity act declares war on poverty
    • medicare and medicaid
    • food stamps
    • head start
    • CETA and other job programs
  60. Reagan Era
    • devolution - shift from federal to state 
    • block grants
    • privatizing
    • Families terminated from welfare
    • political alliance with southern democrats
    • Family support act of 1988
  61. Post Reagan
    • 1990's dominated by budget concern (although there was a great economic prosperity
    •    ~tax increases, spending cuts
    •    ~welfare reform of 1996 end welfare entitlement
    •        -work requirements
    •        -time limits imposed on receiving welfare
    •        -TANF temporary ass. for needy fam
  62. Historical Patterns
    • Poverty is the fault of individuals
    • issues of race and gender
    • social welfare policies have been punitive
    • federalism has affected social welfare progression
    • progress in social welfare policy is reversible
    • government has always had a role
    • Active involvement of the poor has been critical in development of social welfare policy
  63. What happens when spending exceeds revenue?
    • The government must borrow money
    • Government must pay this back with interest and this is mandatory spending
    • As deficit continues and grows, more is needed to pay back and mandatory spending grows