A&P chemistry and biochemistry chapter 2
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What is Energy?
- the capacity to do work
- has no mass and takes up no space
- can liberate heat in the body
What is kinetic energy?
- Energy in action
- constant movement in the tiniest part of matter (atoms)
what is potential energy?
- stored energy
- inactive energy that has the potential to do work but is not presently doing so
What is it called when chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy?
What are the forms of energy?
What type of energy travels in waves;light and heat? Collectively called Electromagnetic Engergy
What type of energy is the movement of charged particles?
*generated when ions move along or across a cell membrane
what type of energy is directly involved with moving matter?
What type of energy is stored in chemical bonds, holds molecules and atoms together and is converted into mechanical energy?
What is adenosine triphosphate? ATP
- stored energy in cells
- when bonds are broken, energy is released to do cellular work
- most useful form of energy in a living system
What is Matter?
- anything that occupies space
- remains constant regardless of gravity
- all matter is composed of elements
what are the 3 states of matter?
- solid-definite shape and volume
- gas-no definite shape or volume
- liquid-definite volume but conforms to container
what is an element?
unique substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means
What 4 elements make up 96% of the body
- O=Oxygen 65%
- C=Carbon 18.5%
- H=Hydrogen 9.5%
- N=Nitrogen 3.2%
What element is a major component of both organic and inorganic molecules and is needed for production of cellular energy (ATP)
What element is a primary component of all organic molecules?
What are the organic molecules?
- lipids (fats)
- nucleic acids
What element is a component of all organic molecules and as an ion (proton) it influences the pH of body fluids?
what element is a component of proteins and nucleic acids (genetic material)
What is the lesser elements found in the body? 3.9%
What is a molecule?
- 2 or more of the same elements sharing electrons
- smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties
What is a compound?
- 2 or more different kinds of atoms (elements) bond
- chemically pure-all identical molecules
What is a mixture?
- 2 or more components physically mixed
- Not chemically pure
- no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture
What are the 3 types of mixtures?
What is an atom?
- Chemical bonds that form molecules
- the building blocks that elements are composed of
- made of subatomic particles:
What is the nucleus?
- Part of an atom containing protons and neutrons tightly bond together
- surrounded by orbiting electrons
- positively charged over all
- 99% mass of the atom
- orbits the nucleus
- negative charge
- 0amu (atomic mass unit)
- determines chemical behavior of atoms
- Positive electrical charge
- makes up part of nucleus
- 1amu (atomic mass unit)
- neutral charge
- makes up part of the nucleus
- 1amu (atomic mass unit)
Define an Isotope
- Structural variations of elements
- same number of protons, different number of neutrons
- differ in their atomic weights
What type of mixture is a homogeneous mixture of components (gases, liquids, or solids) has 2 parts, and is described by concentration?
What are the 2 parts to solutions?
What expressions are used for solutions?
- Moles (molarity)
- Percent (parts Per 100 Parts)
- Milligrams per deciliter mg/dl)
- substance present in the greatest amount
- usually liquids
- water is the body's chief solvent
- substances present in smaller amounts
- usually in the form of individual atoms and molecules
- do not settle out and do not scatter light
- do not settle out/do scatter light
- sol-gel transformation ability
- Cytosol (semifluid material in living cells) is a colloid
- settles out if not continually mixed
- may scatter light
- Examples: sand&water, blood
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds
a chemical bond formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another
an atom that gains one or more electrons is the electron acceptor and acquires a negative charge, and is called?
an atom that loses electrons is the electron donor and acquires a positive charge and is called?
+ or - charged particle due to the loss or gain of an electron is know as what?
Charged particles in a solution that can conduct electricity is know as what?
- driving force to physiology and life
what type of chemical bond shares pairs of electrons?
a bond in which electrons are shared unequally (diploe) is know as what?
a bond in which electrons are shared equally is known as what?
always involves bond formation
reverse synthesis reaction;bonds are broken
AB+C-->AC+B and AB+CD-->AD+CB
involves both synthesis and decomposition
Exchange of electrons between reactants
-oxidation:loses electron;donor (oxidized)
-reduction:gains electron;acceptor (reduced)
redox reactions (rxns)
Exergonic (exothermic) reaction:release energy (heat)
Endergonic (endothermic) reactions: absorb energy (gain heat)
Factors That increase the rate of chemical reactions
- Increased Temperature
- Increased concentration
- smaller particle size
Inorganic Chemistry: compounds without carbon bonding
What are the types of inorganic compounds?
- Acids and Bases
*most important inorganic molecule to the human body
*70% of living cells
*High heat capacity
*High heat of vaporization
*Polar solvent properties
*Important reactant in reactions
*main component of tissues/cushions organs
- proton donors;taste sour
- release hydrogen ions when placed in a solution
- proton acceptors;taste bitter
- accept (decrease) hydrogen ions when in solutions, release hydroxide ions
Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself becoming chemically changed
process in which living cells break down substances into simpler substances
simpler substances are combined to make more complex substances
sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
- BMR=basal metabolic rate
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