constant movement in the tiniest part of matter (atoms)
what is potential energy?
inactive energy that has the potential to do work but is not presently doing so
What is it called when chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy?
What are the forms of energy?
What type of energy travels in waves;light and heat? Collectively called Electromagnetic Engergy
What type of energy is the movement of charged particles?
*generated when ions move along or across a cell membrane
what type of energy is directly involved with moving matter?
What type of energy is stored in chemical bonds, holds molecules and atoms together and is converted into mechanical energy?
What is adenosine triphosphate? ATP
stored energy in cells
when bonds are broken, energy is released to do cellular work
most useful form of energy in a living system
What is Matter?
anything that occupies space
remains constant regardless of gravity
all matter is composed of elements
what are the 3 states of matter?
solid-definite shape and volume
gas-no definite shape or volume
liquid-definite volume but conforms to container
what is an element?
unique substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means
What 4 elements make up 96% of the body
What element is a major component of both organic and inorganic molecules and is needed for production of cellular energy (ATP)
What element is a primary component of all organic molecules?
What are the organic molecules?
What element is a component of all organic molecules and as an ion (proton) it influences the pH of body fluids?
what element is a component of proteins and nucleic acids (genetic material)
What is the lesser elements found in the body? 3.9%
What is a molecule?
2 or more of the same elements sharing electrons
smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties
What is a compound?
2 or more different kinds of atoms (elements) bond
chemically pure-all identical molecules
What is a mixture?
2 or more components physically mixed
Not chemically pure
no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture
What are the 3 types of mixtures?
What is an atom?
Chemical bonds that form molecules
the building blocks that elements are composed of
made of subatomic particles:
What is the nucleus?
Part of an atom containing protons and neutrons tightly bond together
surrounded by orbiting electrons
positively charged over all
99% mass of the atom
orbits the nucleus
0amu (atomic mass unit)
determines chemical behavior of atoms
Positive electrical charge
makes up part of nucleus
1amu (atomic mass unit)
makes up part of the nucleus
1amu (atomic mass unit)
Define an Isotope
Structural variations of elements
same number of protons, different number of neutrons
differ in their atomic weights
What type of mixture is a homogeneous mixture of components (gases, liquids, or solids) has 2 parts, and is described by concentration?
What are the 2 parts to solutions?
What expressions are used for solutions?
Percent (parts Per 100 Parts)
Milligrams per deciliter mg/dl)
substance present in the greatest amount
water is the body's chief solvent
substances present in smaller amounts
usually in the form of individual atoms and molecules
do not settle out and do not scatter light
do not settle out/do scatter light
sol-gel transformation ability
Cytosol (semifluid material in living cells) is a colloid
settles out if not continually mixed
may scatter light
Examples: sand&water, blood
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds
a chemical bond formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another
an atom that gains one or more electrons is the electron acceptor and acquires a negative charge, and is called?
an atom that loses electrons is the electron donor and acquires a positive charge and is called?
+ or - charged particle due to the loss or gain of an electron is know as what?
Charged particles in a solution that can conduct electricity is know as what?
driving force to physiology and life
what type of chemical bond shares pairs of electrons?
a bond in which electrons are shared unequally (diploe) is know as what?
a bond in which electrons are shared equally is known as what?
always involves bond formation
reverse synthesis reaction;bonds are broken
AB+C-->AC+B and AB+CD-->AD+CB
involves both synthesis and decomposition
Exchange of electrons between reactants
-oxidation:loses electron;donor (oxidized)
-reduction:gains electron;acceptor (reduced)
redox reactions (rxns)
Exergonic (exothermic) reaction:release energy (heat)
Endergonic (endothermic) reactions: absorb energy (gain heat)
Factors That increase the rate of chemical reactions
smaller particle size
Inorganic Chemistry: compounds without carbon bonding
What are the types of inorganic compounds?
Acids and Bases
*most important inorganic molecule to the human body
*70% of living cells
*High heat capacity
*High heat of vaporization
*Polar solvent properties
*Important reactant in reactions
*main component of tissues/cushions organs
proton donors;taste sour
release hydrogen ions when placed in a solution
proton acceptors;taste bitter
accept (decrease) hydrogen ions when in solutions, release hydroxide ions
Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself becoming chemically changed
process in which living cells break down substances into simpler substances
simpler substances are combined to make more complex substances