Intro, History, Approaches

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Intro, History, Approaches
2013-02-23 03:54:07
AP Psych

Into, History, Approaches
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  1. What did Plato/Socrates believe about the mind and knowledge?? How did they arrive at this conclusion??
    -The mind is separable from the body and the mind goes on after death.

    -All knowledge is innate(Born with us)

    -Using logic
  2. What did Aristotle believe about knowledge?? How did he arrive at this conclusion??
    -knowledge grows from experiences, stored as memories.

    -Using observations
  3. What role did Francis Bacon play in the development of modern psychology??
    -Francis Bacon established the modern scientific method
  4. Who coined the term "tabula rasa"?? and what does it mean??
    -John Locke

    -Blank slate
  5. What is empiricism??
    Relying on observations and experimentation.
  6. Who is considered the "father of psychology"?? and what did he do to earn this term??
    -Wilhelm Wundt

    -First lab with human subjects

    -Cataloged sensations and reactions

    -First to approach as a science rather than a philosophy.
  7. Who founded structuralism?? What is structuralism??
    -Edward Bradford Titchener

    -The search for elements of the mind.
  8. What is introspection?? Why did introspection fail along with structuralism??
    -Self reflection along with sensations, subjects expressed images and feelings.

    -Unreliable from person to person.
  9. Who started Functionalism?? What is it?? Who influenced this idea??
    -William James

    -Senses are adaptive in order to function and survive.

    -Charles Darwin
  10. What is behaviorism?? List the two most notable behaviorists.
    -Focus on observable behavior(sensations are not observable)

    -John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner
  11. What is humanism?? Name two noteworthy humanists.
    -The study of how the environment influences the potential for growth and the needs for love and acceptance.

    - Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
  12. What is cognitive psychology/cognitive neuroscience??
    -The focus on the brain and the ways we perceive  process, and remember information.
  13. How would you best describe the Darwinian influence??
    -The process of natural selection of traits for behaviors and thought processes.
  14. What is the biopsychosocial approach??
    -an amalgamation of the biological, psychological, and socio-cultural approaches.

  15. What does the term "Gestalt" refer to??
    -The tendency to piece together bits of information in order to form and meaningful big picture of sorts.
  16. Sigmund Freud
    -Founder of psychoanalysis/the psychodynamic approach.
  17. Charles Darwin
    -Theory of evolution
  18. Jean Piaget
    -Important early studies on children and development.
  19. Mary Whiton Calkins
    • -First female APA president
    • -earn PhD from Harvard(Denied on basis of gender)
  20. Dorothea Dix

    -Sought government funding for asylums and hospitals for the insane.
  21. Ivan Pavlov

    -Principles of classical conditioning

    -Pavlov's dogs
  22. John B. Watson

    -Mold a child into anything

    -Little Albert
  23. Margaret Floy Washburn
    -First Female PhD

    -Animal behavior

    -Motor Theory: Thought can be traced to body movements.
  24. G. Stanley Hall
    -Evolutionary psychology: inherited behavior.
  25. William James
    -Founder of functionalism.
  26. Psychometrics
    -Measuring abilities, attitudes and traits.
  27. Developmental psychologists
    -Changes from birth to death.

    -"Womb to Tomb"
  28. Educational psychologists
    -Influences and methods of teaching and learning.
  29. Personality psychologists
    -Study personality traits
  30. Social psychologists
    -Study how we view and affect one another
  31. Industrial-organizational psychologists
    -Select and train employees, boost moral and productivity.
  32. Counseling psychologists
    -Crises, challenges, marital issues, etc.
  33. Clinical psychologists
    -Help people with psychological disorders

    -Use psychotherapy
  34. Psychiatrists
    -Have a M.D.

    -Psychotherapy and prescribe medicine(psychopharmacology)