MedTerm3 Skeletal

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sofiamama
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202769
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MedTerm3 Skeletal
Updated:
2013-02-23 19:06:51
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medical terms
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Medical term Chapter 3 LVN
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  1. oss/e, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o
    bone
  2. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  3. chondr/o
    cartilage
  4. arthr/o
    joints
  5. ligament/o
    ligament
  6. burs/o
    bursa
  7. cost/o
    rib
  8. synovi/o, synov/o
    synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  9. ankyl/o
    crooked, bent, stiff
  10. crani/o
    skull
  11. -desis
    to bind, tie together
  12. kyph/o
    bent, lump
  13. lord/o
    curve, swayback, bent
  14. -lysis
    loosening or setting free
  15. scoli/o
    curved, bent
  16. spondyl/o
    vertebrae, vertebrae column, backbone
  17. -um
    singular noun
  18. axial skeleton VS. appendicular skeleton
    • Axial skeleton:
    • -protects the nervous, respiratory, circulatory system
    • -Bones: skull, ossicles of middle ear, the hyoid bone, rib cage, vertebral column.


    • Appendicular skeleton:
    • -makes body movement possible
    • -protects the organs digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
    • -Bones: upper extremities (shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands), lower extremities (hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet)
  19. What are the functions of the skeletal system?
    • -protect/support internal organ
    • -work together with muscles
    • -body framework
    • -Red Bone Marrow to formation of RBCs
    • -storage of calcium in marrow
  20. What are the structures of the muscular system?
    • -origin
    • -insertion
    • -size
    • -shape
    • -action
    • -location
    • -direction
    • -# of divisions
  21. Periosteum
    tough, firbrous tissue that forms the OUTERMOST LAYER of the bone
  22. Compact Bone (cortical bone)
    dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the PROTECTIVE OUTER LAYER of the bone.
  23. Spongy Bone (cancellous bone)
    lighter and not as strong as compact bone; found at the ends and inner portions of LONG BONES (femur). *Location of red bone marrow production.*
  24. Medullary Cavity
    • located in the SHAFT OF THE LONG BONES where it is surrounded by compact bone.
    • *Yellow bone marrow is stored in this cavity*
  25. Endosteum
    tissue that lines the medullary cavity.
  26. Red bone marrow
    • located in the spongy bone (femur)
    • is the hemopoietic tissue that produces RBC, WBC, thrombocytes, hemoglobin.
  27. Yellow bone marrow
    • functions as fat storage area.
    • located in the medullary cavity of long bones.
  28. What is hemopoietic process?
    PT to the formation of blood cells.
  29. What are the three types of cartilage?
    • Cartilage
    • Articular
    • Meniscus
  30. Cartilage
    • blue/white & smooth rubbery CT
    • L:outer ear/nose tip
    • F:shock absorber
  31. Articular
    • L:joint bones
    • F:protects bones from friction and facilitates smooth movement.
  32. Meniscus
    • L:some joints of the knee & jaw
    • F:shock absorber between bones
  33. Diaphysis
    shaft of the long bone
  34. Epiphysis
    wider ends of the long bone (i.e. femur)
  35. Foramen
    opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass.
  36. Process
    normal projection that serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon.
  37. What are the three types of joints?
    • Fibrous joints: flexible dense CT (sutures; fontanelles-baby soft spots)
    • Cartilage joints: slight movement, connection of bones (ribs, pubic symphysis)
    • Synovial joints: between two bones to allow variety of motions (ball & socket, hinge)
  38. What are the components of synovial joints?
    • Bursa
    • Ligaments
    • Synovial membrane/fluid
  39. Bursa
    • Fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and stores synovial fluid.
    • L: shoulder, knee, elbow
    • F: cushion to prevent friction
  40. Ligament
    • fibrous tissue that connect bone to bone
    • L: many areas
    • F: provides movement
  41. Synovial membrane/fluid
    • surrounded by fibrous capsule and lined with synovial mem.
    • F: lubricant and allows smooth movements of the joints.
  42. Cervical vertebrae
    C1-C7; form the neck.
  43. Thoracic vertebrae
    T1-T12; has rib bones connected to form the outward curve of the spine.
  44. Lumbar vertebrae
    L1-L5; form the inward the inward curve of lower spine.
  45. Ankylosis
    loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
  46. Subluxation
    partial displacement of a bone from its joint.
  47. Dislocation
    total displacement of a bone from its joint.
  48. -listhesis
    slipping
  49. Compression fracture
    when the bone is pressed together on itself.
  50. Colle's fracture
    known as a fractured wrist
  51. Closed fracture
    bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin
  52. Open fracture
    bone has broken through the skin
  53. Comminuted fracture
    bone is splintered and crushed.
  54. Greenstick fracture
    bone is is bent and partially broken.
  55. Spiral fracture
    bone has twisted apart
  56. Allogenic BMT
    means originating within another. Retrieving a transplant from a compatible donor.
  57. Autologus
    means originating within individual. Patient retrieves their own transplant that has been harvested, stored away.
  58. Pathologic fracture
    broken bone due to disease such as osteoporosis.
  59. Orthotic
    mechanical appliance to support broken bone. i.e. cast or leg brace.
  60. Internal fixation
    also known as open reduction internal fixation. FRACTURE TREATMENT in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place.

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