Biomedical Science

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Biomedical Science
2013-02-25 00:21:17
1409 Unit

Chapter 6 Vocab.
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  1. Active electrode
    Transfers concentrated electrical current into another medium (e.g., electrical current transformed into thermal energy)
  2. Cartesian coordinate geometry
    Refers to the 16th-century philosopher René Descartes, who invented coordinate geometry; also called rectangular coordinate geometry
  3. Central processing unit (CPU)
    Silicon chip located within the computer case that is responsible for coordinating the operations of the computer, managing the computer systems, and facilitating the exchange of data with the computer memory
  4. Circuit
    The path that electricity travels between an energy source and its usage device(s)
  5. Degrees of freedom
    The number of ways in which a robotic manipulator moves
  6. Electrons
    The negatively charged particles circling the nucleus of an atom
  7. Free electrons
    The outermost electrons in the atom’s orbit that can most easily be attracted away from the nucleus
  8. Generator
    • Devices that convert mechanical energy to electric energy
    • (ESU) The main unit that provides the source of electrical current to the active electrode and completes the pathway for the returning current from the grounding pad.
  9. Grounding pad
    A pad that is placed on a patient to complete the pathway for the electrical current back to the electrosurgical unit; also called the dispersive electrode
  10. Insulator
    Material that inhibits the flow of free electrons; typically prevents electron leakage and directs the flow to a destination (simply poor conductors) (e.g., in the OR are the rubber and plastic covers around the cords of the ESU or x-ray machine)
  11. Load
    • The weight supported or force imposed
    • A device that uses the electricity to perform some type of function.
    • Can also change the amount of energy that is delivered from the power source
  12. Mass
    The property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field
  13. Modem
    A communications hardware device that enables the sending and receiving of data over a telephone line or cable; typically used to send e-mail or to access the Internet
  14. Monitor
    A visual interface for computers
  15. Mouse
    A hand device used to move a cursor on a computer monitor and select a file or function
  16. Neutrons
    Subatomic particles equal in mass to protons but without an electrical charge
  17. Patient return electrode
    New term that replaces dispersive (inactive) electrode; also called a grounding pad
  18. Plasma
    (1) Liquid portion of body fluid; (2) an ionized gas made primarily of free electrons and having a neutral charge
  19. Power; watts
    • The ability or capacity to perform or act effectively
    • "the rate at which work is done"
    • Is measured in ...
  20. Pressure
    The force per unit of area; applied evenly over a surface
  21. Protons
    An elemental particle with a positive charge equal to the negative charge of the electron
  22. Switch
    A device used to open or close a circuit, thereby controlling the flow of electricity
  23. Hardware
    Overall term used to describe the components of a computer, such as the CPU, monitor, modem, and memory storage devices.
  24. Desktop
    First thing that pops up on the monitor screen; the general background on which windows, dialog boxes, and icons appear; shortcuts to programs can be placed here, the screen background (called wallpaper) changed, and the taskbar customized.
  25. Software
    Programs that operate the computer system and its individual hardware components, as well as the user's programs, such as word processing.
  26. Byte
    Equals to or holds 1 character
  27. Kilobyte (KB)
    1024 bytes
  28. Megabyte (MB)
    1024 kilobytes
  29. Gigabyte (GB)
    1024 megabytes
  30. Terabyte (TB)
    1024 gigabytes
  31. Carbon Copy (cc)
    The term is from the days manual typewriters.  It indicates to the persons being copied that they do not need to reply, but they should read the message.
  32. Blind carbon copy (bcc)
    Allows the message sender to copy one or more person, but the receiver cannot see who else received the message.
  33. Electron Theory
    Principles that govern the behavior of tiny particles (electrons), which helps to explain electricity and serves as the basis for design of all electrical equipment.
  34. Shells or Orbits
    Paths the electrons revolve around the nucleus
  35. Electricity
    Describes the free electrons moving or flowing from the ring of one atom to another
  36. Conductors
    Materials that allow the flow of electrons; (e.g., silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, brass, iron, saltwater, carbon, and some acids)
  37. Copper
    The most common used conductor because it is economical. (e.g., some devices in the OR that use this conductor are surgical lamps, ESU, and power drills)
  38. Electrical charges
    • Can be either negative or positive and are simply defined as too many or too few electrons on an atom, respectively.
    • (keep in mind "opposites attract!")
  39. Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt
    Naturally occurring magnetic substances
  40. (1) Magnetism can generate an electric current
    (2) Electricity is used to generate magnetism
    Two principles discussed that have important applications in the OR:
  41. Electromagnets
    Metals that become magnetic when a conductor, such as copper wire, is wrapped around them
  42. Volt
    Electrical potential
  43. A source of power, conductor, load, and switch
    A simple electrical circuit is comprised of...
  44. Current; amperes (amps)
    • Is the flow of electric charge or the rate of flow of electrons; and is measured in ...
    • (e.g., A single strand of copper wire is laid on a table; one end of the wire is negative, and the other is positive. All free electrons in the wire will be attracted to the positive end and consequently flow in the same direction.) Free electrons will always be attracted from point of excess electrons to a point that lacks them.
  45. Resistance
    Restricting the flow of current
  46. Open; Closed
    When the switch is "_____," there is no flow and the flashlight is not on.  When the switch is "_____," the flashlight is on.
  47. Direct current (DC)
    One out of two electrical systems that indicate electrical current that flows in one direction from the negative pole to the positive pole. (e.g., batteries)
  48. 1 - Source of electricity (e.g., battery)
    2 - Conductor (e.g., wire from source to load)
    3 - Control device (e.g., switch)
    4 - Load (e.g., bulb, heater, or other load)
    The four components of a DC circuit are:
  49. Alternating current (AC)
    • One out of two electrical systems that describes the flow of current that reverses direction periodically.
    • A complete cycle occurs when current moves in one direction and then reverses its course.
    • It is also characterized by its ability to change the voltage. (It can be delivered at a
    • high voltage and then “stepped down” (reduced) to a lower voltage at the point
    • of use.
  50. Hertz (Hz)
    One cycle represents one AC cycle
  51. Frequency (f)
    The number of cycles per second
  52. Transformers
    Devices that step down or step up (increase) the exiting voltage and only work with alternating current.  (e.g., power lines)
  53. Electrosurgery
    This is the application of electrical current through tissue to coagulate or cut tissue.
  54. - Generator
    - Optional foot pedal
    - Cords
    - Active electrode
    - Patient return electrode
    Components of the ESU
  55. - Generator (power source)
    - Active electrode (electrosurgical pencil)
    - Patient
    - Patient return electrode (PRE/grounding pad)
    The circuit of the ESU
  56. 1. Monopolar
    2. Bipolar
    Two modes the ESU uses to deliverelectrical current to the tissue:
  57. Monopolar
    • Frequently used for coagulation, but may be used to cut tissue;
    • It is used when large surgicalareas are involved.
  58. Bipolar
    • It is used less frequently and is only used for the purposes of coagulation, not cutting;
    • It is used for delicate surgical procedures, at sites where moisture is nearby, or to prevent damage to delicate tissue and nerves.
  60. Articulated
    Broken into sections by joints.  Many robot arms have articulated geometry and the versatility is measured in degrees of function.
  61. Binaural hearing
    Ability of humans and robots to determine the direction from which sound is coming.  Humans have two ears that provide this ability; robots are given two sound transducers that provide the ability.
  62. Cylindrical coordinate geometry
    Refers to the plane that is used in combination with a plane coordinate system and elevation in conjunction with a robotic arm.
  63. Degrees of rotation
    Extent that a robot joint or a set of joints can move clockwise and counterclockwise about an axis.  A reference point is established and the angles of the joint are stated in degrees.
  64. Expert systems
    Method of reasoning in AI used to control smart robots. It consists of facts or data supplied to the robot about the robot's environment; also called "rule-based system."
  65. Manipulators
    Technical term for robot arms
  66. Resolution
    Extent to which a machine, human, or robot can differentiate between two objects.
  67. Revolute geometry
    Refers to a robotic arm that can move in three dimensions, resembling the movements of a human arm, such as rotating through a full circle (360 degrees)
  68. Sensitivity
    Ability of a machine or robot to see in dim light or detect weak impulses at invisible wavelengths.
  69. Telechir
    Name given to remotely controlled robots.
  70. Telepresence
    Refers to the operation of a robot at a distance, meaning the operator is situated in one location, usually miles apart, and the robot is on-site with the patient.