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Transfers concentrated electrical current into another medium (e.g., electrical current transformed into thermal energy)
Cartesian coordinate geometry
Refers to the 16th-century philosopher René Descartes, who invented coordinate geometry; also called rectangular coordinate geometry
Central processing unit (CPU)
Silicon chip located within the computer case that is responsible for coordinating the operations of the computer, managing the computer systems, and facilitating the exchange of data with the computer memory
The path that electricity travels between an energy source and its usage device(s)
Degrees of freedom
The number of ways in which a robotic manipulator moves
The negatively charged particles circling the nucleus of an atom
The outermost electrons in the atom’s orbit that can most easily be attracted away from the nucleus
- Devices that convert mechanical energy to electric energy
- (ESU) The main unit that provides the source of electrical current to the active electrode and completes the pathway for the returning current from the grounding pad.
A pad that is placed on a patient to complete the pathway for the electrical current back to the electrosurgical unit; also called the dispersive electrode
Material that inhibits the flow of free electrons; typically prevents electron leakage and directs the flow to a destination (simply poor conductors) (e.g., in the OR are the rubber and plastic covers around the cords of the ESU or x-ray machine)
- The weight supported or force imposed
- A device that uses the electricity to perform some type of function.
- Can also change the amount of energy that is delivered from the power source
The property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field
A communications hardware device that enables the sending and receiving of data over a telephone line or cable; typically used to send e-mail or to access the Internet
A visual interface for computers
A hand device used to move a cursor on a computer monitor and select a file or function
Subatomic particles equal in mass to protons but without an electrical charge
Patient return electrode
New term that replaces dispersive (inactive) electrode; also called a grounding pad
(1) Liquid portion of body fluid; (2) an ionized gas made primarily of free electrons and having a neutral charge
- The ability or capacity to perform or act effectively
- "the rate at which work is done"
- Is measured in ...
The force per unit of area; applied evenly over a surface
An elemental particle with a positive charge equal to the negative charge of the electron
A device used to open or close a circuit, thereby controlling the flow of electricity
Overall term used to describe the components of a computer, such as the CPU, monitor, modem, and memory storage devices.
First thing that pops up on the monitor screen; the general background on which windows, dialog boxes, and icons appear; shortcuts to programs can be placed here, the screen background (called wallpaper) changed, and the taskbar customized.
Programs that operate the computer system and its individual hardware components, as well as the user's programs, such as word processing.
Equals to or holds 1 character
Carbon Copy (cc)
The term is from the days manual typewriters. It indicates to the persons being copied that they do not need to reply, but they should read the message.
Blind carbon copy (bcc)
Allows the message sender to copy one or more person, but the receiver cannot see who else received the message.
Principles that govern the behavior of tiny particles (electrons), which helps to explain electricity and serves as the basis for design of all electrical equipment.
Shells or Orbits
Paths the electrons revolve around the nucleus
Describes the free electrons moving or flowing from the ring of one atom to another
Materials that allow the flow of electrons; (e.g., silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, brass, iron, saltwater, carbon, and some acids)
The most common used conductor because it is economical. (e.g., some devices in the OR that use this conductor are surgical lamps, ESU, and power drills)
- Can be either negative or positive and are simply defined as too many or too few electrons on an atom, respectively.
- (keep in mind "opposites attract!")
Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt
Naturally occurring magnetic substances
(1) Magnetism can generate an electric current
(2) Electricity is used to generate magnetism
Two principles discussed that have important applications in the OR:
Metals that become magnetic when a conductor, such as copper wire, is wrapped around them
A source of power, conductor, load, and switch
A simple electrical circuit is comprised of...
Current; amperes (amps)
- Is the flow of electric charge or the rate of flow of electrons; and is measured in ...
- (e.g., A single strand of copper wire is laid on a table; one end of the wire is negative, and the other is positive. All free electrons in the wire will be attracted to the positive end and consequently flow in the same direction.) Free electrons will always be attracted from point of excess electrons to a point that lacks them.
Restricting the flow of current
When the switch is "_____," there is no flow and the flashlight is not on. When the switch is "_____," the flashlight is on.
Direct current (DC)
One out of two electrical systems that indicate electrical current that flows in one direction from the negative pole to the positive pole. (e.g., batteries)
1 - Source of electricity (e.g., battery)
2 - Conductor (e.g., wire from source to load)
3 - Control device (e.g., switch)
4 - Load (e.g., bulb, heater, or other load)
The four components of a DC circuit are:
Alternating current (AC)
- One out of two electrical systems that describes the flow of current that reverses direction periodically.
- A complete cycle occurs when current moves in one direction and then reverses its course.
- It is also characterized by its ability to change the voltage. (It can be delivered at a
- high voltage and then “stepped down” (reduced) to a lower voltage at the point
- of use.
One cycle represents one AC cycle
The number of cycles per second
Devices that step down or step up (increase) the exiting voltage and only work with alternating current. (e.g., power lines)
This is the application of electrical current through tissue to coagulate or cut tissue.
- Optional foot pedal
- Active electrode
- Patient return electrode
Components of the ESU
- Generator (power source)
- Active electrode (electrosurgical pencil)
- Patient return electrode (PRE/grounding pad)
The circuit of the ESU
Two modes the ESU uses to deliverelectrical current to the tissue:
- Frequently used for coagulation, but may be used to cut tissue;
- It is used when large surgicalareas are involved.
- It is used less frequently and is only used for the purposes of coagulation, not cutting;
- It is used for delicate surgical procedures, at sites where moisture is nearby, or to prevent damage to delicate tissue and nerves.
SURGICAL ROBOT TERMINOLOGY
SURGICAL ROBOT TERMINOLOGY
Broken into sections by joints. Many robot arms have articulated geometry and the versatility is measured in degrees of function.
Ability of humans and robots to determine the direction from which sound is coming. Humans have two ears that provide this ability; robots are given two sound transducers that provide the ability.
Cylindrical coordinate geometry
Refers to the plane that is used in combination with a plane coordinate system and elevation in conjunction with a robotic arm.
Degrees of rotation
Extent that a robot joint or a set of joints can move clockwise and counterclockwise about an axis. A reference point is established and the angles of the joint are stated in degrees.
Method of reasoning in AI used to control smart robots. It consists of facts or data supplied to the robot about the robot's environment; also called "rule-based system."
Technical term for robot arms
Extent to which a machine, human, or robot can differentiate between two objects.
Refers to a robotic arm that can move in three dimensions, resembling the movements of a human arm, such as rotating through a full circle (360 degrees)
Ability of a machine or robot to see in dim light or detect weak impulses at invisible wavelengths.
Name given to remotely controlled robots.
Refers to the operation of a robot at a distance, meaning the operator is situated in one location, usually miles apart, and the robot is on-site with the patient.
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