Preventing Perioperative Disease Transmission

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Preventing Perioperative Disease Transmission
2013-02-25 04:20:59
1409 Unit

Chapter 7 Vocab.
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  1. Asepsis
    Absence of microorganisms
  2. Autoclave
    Device to accomplish steam or gas sterilization
  3. Bioburden
    Amount of gross organic debris or the number of microorganisms on an object at any given time
  4. Biological indicator
    A method for testing the sterilization capability of a sterilizer; contains microorganisms that are killed when exposed to a sterilization process; only method of guaranteeing the sterility of an item(s)
  5. Bowie-Dick test
    Specifically designed for use with a prevacuum steam sterilizer to test for air entrapment
  6. Cavitation
    Mechanical process used by ultrasonic cleaners during which air pockets implode to dislodge debris and soil from the crevices and serrations of surgical instruments and equipment
  7. Chelation
    A method of cleaning instruments in which the chosen cleaning solution uses the process of binding ions, such as iron and magnesium, in the solution to prevent their deposit on the surface of surgical instruments
  8. Chemical indicator
    Internal or external monitor that changes color when exposed to the sterilization process; only indicates that the sterilization process has occurred; it does not guarantee the sterility of the item
  9. Colonization
    The growth and collection of microbes into a group that lives in a particular area, such as the colonization of S. aureus in the nares of humans
  10. Contaminated
    Soiled with gross debris or by the presence of microbes
  11. Endoscope
    A general term used to describe the various types of flexible or rigid scopes used to view the body’s internal structures
  12. Event-related sterility
    Sterility determined by how a sterile package is handled rather than time elapsed; the package is considered sterile until opened, or until the integrity of the packaging material is compromised
  13. Immediate-use steam sterilization
    A process of quickly sterilizing unwrapped items (such as a surgical instrument that has been dropped on the floor and is needed right away) using prevacuum or gravity steam sterilizers
  14. Immersion
    Placing an item in a container so it is completely covered by a liquid, such as immersing a surgical instrument in glutaraldehyde
  15. Integrity
    Complete, with no breaks or tears
  16. Intermediate-level disinfection
    Level of disinfection in which most microorganisms are killed except spores
  17. Julian date
    Calendar days that are sequentially numbered through the year; often used when maintaining sterilization records (i.e., February 1 would be the 32nd day of the Julian calendar)
  18. Lumen
    The opening in a tube or vessel
  19. Pathogen
    Microorganism that is capable of causing disease
  20. Permeability
    The condition of being permeable; capable of allowing the passage of fluids or substances
  21. Sterile field
    Area of sterility maintained by the surgical team during a procedure
  22. Sterile technique
    Methods used to prevent contamination of the sterile field and prevent the patient from acquiring a postoperative wound infection
  23. Sterilization
    (1) Procedure to render an individual incapable of reproduction; (2) process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed
  24. Ultrasonic cleaner
    A machine used to remove minute organic particles and soil from the areas of instrumentation hardest to reach by manual or other mechanical methods of cleaning; the washer utilizes the process of cavitation for cleaning instruments
  25. Indigenous microflora
    Microbes that live on the skin and inside the human body (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa).  Also referred to as "opportunistic pathogens."
  26. Symbiosis; Symbionts
    The relationship between human hosts and indigenous flora;  _____ refers to both organisms
  27. Infection
    The multiplication of organisms in the tissues of a host.
  28. Mutualism
    Both organisms benefit from and depend on one another to a certain extent. (e.g., Escherichia coli, colonizes within the human intestine, obtains nutrients from the food that humans eat; E. coli produces vitamin K, which is essential to to blood-clotting process in humans.)
  29. Synergism (>> Mutualism)
    Two organisms work together to achieve a result neither could obtain alone. (e.g., Fusobacteria and spirochetes work together to cause a disease known as trench mouth)
  30. Commensalism
    One organism benefits but second organism neither benefits nor is harmed. (e.g., Indigenous microflora on the skin of humans obtain nutrients, but do not affect the skin or human body.  To a certain extent they benefit humans by occupying space and preventing other potentially harmful microbes from colonizing, a process referred to as competitive exclusion. 
  31. Neutralism (>>Commensalism)
    Two organisms occupy the same area with with no effect on each other.
  32. Antagonism (>>Commensalism)
    One microorganism inhibits or interferes with the growth of another. (e.g., a microbe produces waste products that are toxic to the neighboring microbes)
  33. Parasitism
    One organism benefits and the host is harmed. (e.g., Endoparasites, such as intestinal worms, cause an infection and deplete the body of nutrition)
  35. Morphology
    Size, shape, and arrangements of bacteria
  36. Coccoid (coccus singular; cocci plural)
    Round-shaped bacteria
  37. Diplococci
    Paired bacteria
  38. Streptococci
    Chain of bacteria
  39. Staphylococci
    Cluster of bacteria
  40. Coccobacilli
    A bacterial cell intermediate in morphology between a coccus and a bacillus.  While still rod shaped, coccobacilli are so short and wide that they resemble cocci.
  41. Bacillus (bacillus singular; bacilli plural)
    rod-shaped bacteria
  42. Spirilla
    spiral-shaped bacteria
  43. L-form
    Bacteria that lose normal shape due to adverse environmental conditions; one normal conditions are reestablished cells revert to normal shape.
  44. Growth
    • Varies with type of agar medium
    • Shape, size, and color of a bacterial colony will be specific to the bacterial species grown on or in a particular nutrient medium
    • Rate at which bacteria multiply is a key characteristics
  45. Motility
    Ability of a microbe to move by itself
  46. Flagella
    Long thin structure attached to the outside of the cell; uses whipping motion to provide motility to the cell
  47. Cilia
    Fine, short, hairlike extensions located on the surface of the cell; their coordinated, rhythmic movement allows the cell to move
  48. Nutritional requirements
    e.g., carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, vitamins, iron, calcium, copper, zinc
  49. Oxygen requirements
    Bacterial species classified according to oxygen and carbon dioxide needs
  50. Obligate aerobes
    Require level of oxygen found in a typical room
  51. Microaerophiles
    Require oxygen but at level lower than that found in room air (about 5% oxygen)
  52. Obligate anaerobes
    Will not grow if there is any amount of oxygen present in the environment
  53. Facultative anaerobes
    Able to survive in an environment that contains oxygen or no oxygen
  54. Aerotolerant
    Grow best in environment without oxygen but can survive in atmosphere that contains up to 15% oxygen
  55. Capnophiles
    Grow best in high concentrations of carbon dioxide
  56. Pathogenicity
    • Ability to cause disease
    • Release of exotoxins or endotoxins
    • Presence of a protective capsule
    • Direct damage by attaching to the host cells to invade tissues of the body
  57. Metabolism
    Secretion of waste products (enzymes, oxygen, methane, or carbon dioxide)
  58. Proteins
    Microbiologists examine amino acid sequences of these proteins to determine the relationship of species to other types of bacteria.
  59. Genetics
    Determining DNA or RNA sequence aids the microbiologists in determining the relationship between two different species or establishing information as related to a new strain of bacteria.
  60. Staining
    Used to prepare specimens for microscopic examination
  61. Simple stain
    Used to determine basic shape and structures of cell; single dye such as methylene blue is used and the cell is rinsed with water.
  62. Gram stain
    Cells are stained with crystal violet; washed with ethanol that removes purple stain from bacteria that don't retain the stain; red dye safranin is applied; specimen is rinsed with water.  continued to determined gram-positive or negative
  63. Gram-positive bacteria
    Retains the crystal violet and therefore are purple color
  64. Gram-negative bacteria
    Do not retain the crystal violet and are red from the safranin stain
  65. Gram variable bacteria
    Such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, do not consistently stain red or purple
  66. Acid-fast stain
    Used to identify bacteria classifed in the genus Mycobacterium.  Red dye (carbolfuchsin) is retained
  67. Spore-forming (sporulation)
    • *Clostridium is one example
    • When environment conditions are unfavorable, including extremes in temperature, dry enviroment, and a total lack of a source of food, the genetic material of the cell is enclosed in a protein capsule
    • Can survive for a long time until favorable conditions are reestablished; the bacteria returns to its vegetative state and is able to grow and reproduce again.
    • Not to be confused with reproduction, sporulation is a method of bacterial survival.
    • They are difficult to destroy; therefore sterilization processes must also be able to kill spores.
  69. Staplylococcus aureus
    • Toxic shock syndrome
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Endocarditis
    • Postoperative SSI
  70. Staphylococcus epidermis
    • IV catheter infections
    • UTIs
    • Prosthetic device infections
    • Subacute bacterial infections
    • Endocarditis
  71. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Bacterial pneumonia
    • Bacterial meningitis
    • Otitis media
    • Bacteremia
  72. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Strep throat
    • Tonsillitis
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Scarlet fever
    • Necrotizing fasciitis
  73. Streptococcus agalactiae
    • Neonatal septicemia
    • Neonatal meningitis
  74. Streptococcus mutans
    Dental caries
  75. Helicobacter pylori
    • Aerobi, Microaerophile Gram-Negative Bacilli, Spirochetes
    • Chronic gastritis
    • Stomach ulcers
    • Peptic ulcers
  76. Clostridium perfringes
    • Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria
    • Gas gangrene infection
    • Cellulitis
    • Fasciitis
  77. Bacteroides fragilis
    • Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli, Coccibacilli
    • Peritonitis
  78. Enterococcus
    • Facultative Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci
    • Urinary tract and bloodstream; associated with intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections
  79. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Gram-Positive; acid-fast bacillus positive; aerobic; coccus & bacillus shape
    • Tuberculosis
  80. Neisseria gonorrheae
    • Aerobic Gram-Negative Cocci, Coccobacilli
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease leading to salpingitis
  81. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Aerobic, Microaerophile Gram-Negative Bacilli, Spirochetes
    • Deep-tissue health care-associated infections in patients with burns, deep puncture wounds, and open bone fractures
    • External otitis
    • Keratitis
    • UTIs
    • Endocarditis in patients with prosthetic heart valves