Notes 5/11/10

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Notes 5/11/10
2010-05-22 11:17:44

Pharmacology (Ch. 2)
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  1. Drug Interactions

    -the action of two drugs working together in which one helps the other simultaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone
  2. Drug Interactions

    - the action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effect of the other
  3. Drug Interactions

    -the opposing actions of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels the effect
  4. Drug Effect

    Systemic Effect
    -reaches widespread areas of the body
  5. Drug Effect

    Local Effect
    -it is limited to an area of the body where it is administered
  6. Drug Responsiveness

    Idiosyncratic Effect
    -an effect that is the opposite of, or unusual, compared with the predicted effect
  7. Drug Responsiveness

    -decrease response to a drug that develops after repeated doses are given. Dose must be increased or replaced.
  8. Drug Responsiveness

    -acquired need for a drug that may produce psychological and/or physical symptoms of withdrawal when DC (discharged)
  9. Drug Responsiveness

    Teratogenic Effect
    -effect from maternal drug administration that causes the development of physical defect in the fetus
  10. Drug Responsiveness

    Immune response (allergy) to a drug
  11. Drug Responsiveness

    Anaphylactic Reaction
    -severe, possibly fatal, allergic response

    Sign - itching, urticaria, vascular collapse, shock, cyanosis, laryngeal edema and dyspnea

    Tx : CPR, epinephrine, cortcosteroids, antihistamine
  12. Dosage
    -amount of drug given for a particular therapeutic effect
  13. Minimum Dose
    - smallest amount of a drug that will produce a therapeutic effect
  14. Maximum Dose
    - largest amount of a drug that will produce a desired effect without producing symptoms of toxicity
  15. Loading Dose
    - initial high dose (often maximum dose) used to quickly elevate the level of drug in the blood, followed by lower maintenance doses
  16. Maintenance Dose
    - dose required to keep the drug's blood level at a steady state in order to maintain the desired effect
  17. Lethal Dose
    - dose that causes death
  18. Therapeutic Dose
    - dose that is costumorily given: adjusted accourding to variations from the normal
  19. Routes of Administration

    They are selected according to :
    1) Rate of onset of drug activity desired

    2) Physiochemical factors that affect drug absorption
  20. Routes of Administration

    Enteral (GI Tract)

    *Nasogastric Tube

  21. Routes of Administration

    Parenteral Rountes (doesn't touch GI tract)

    • *Sublingual
    • *Injection routes (IM, SC, ID, IV)
    • *Topical (dernal, mucosal)
    • *Inhalation
    • *Buccal (pill placed between the cheek & gum)
  22. Pharmacokinetic Phase

    : means the movement of the drug throughout our body.

    * Study of what happens to the drug from the time it is put into the body until t has left the body

    * It includes : absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of the drug