Psychology 10: Exam 2 Lecture Notes
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Why is it dangerous to talk on a cell phone
- on a cell phone while driving is as bad as driving drunk.
- of accident)
- device—is just as unsafe as holding a cell phone.
- drivers are just as dangerous to have a passenger in contrast to an older
Why is it dangerous to talk on a cell phone
- worse—to text (worrying about what keys to press, etc.)
- can only pay attention to a few things at the same time/Attending to a phone
- conversation causes interference/we can’t take.
Long-Term Memory: Components
Directions for well-practiced skills e.g. riding a bike, typing.
Mostly outside of our awareness.
Facts and events
- experiences/e.g. what you did yesterday.
- Meaning of words and concepts/general
- knowledge/e.g. the definition of “memory”/how to explain synaptic transmission.
Process Information: Two Ways
- Some information we encode without
- trying/this is called Automatic
- Processing—encoding information without trying.
- Examples: The face of the person
- sitting next to you/the path from your bedroom to your front door.
What sort of information do we process automatically?
We can’t turn off automatic processing
Study Tip #1
- Choose to be interested in what you are
- Why? This will cause you to
- automatically learn some of the information.
Study Tip #2
- Relate the information to yourself to
- give it personal meaning.
- Some information we have to work at encoding
- in our memory.
This is called effortful processing.
- Processing—Working at encoding information into your memory.
- Question: What are some examples of
- information you have learned through effortful processing?
- Answer: Almost everything you are
- expected to learn in college.
- Strategies for learning information
- that requires effortful processing.
Levels of Processing
- How deeply you really think about the
- meaning you are trying to learn.
Study Tip #3
- When studying/first understand the
- meaning of the words/ideas so you can process them more deeply.
Ask yourself/do I understand this?
- Ebbinghaus—learning meaningful
- information requires only 1/10 the time it takes to learn nonsense information.
Study Tip #4
To learn information that requires effortful processing/find connections to what you already know.
Study Tip #5
Chunk information into units e.g. social security numbers—xxx-xx-xxxx/e.g. acronyms and acrostics.
Acronyms—list of words/take first letter of every word.
Acrostic—from sentences instead of words.
The ability to access and keep information over time.
Three (3) Memory Tasks
(1) Encoding: Putting information into memory.
(2) Storage: Keeping information.
(3) Retrieval: Calling up the information out of storage.
How does information get from the environment into our memory?
Three (3) Stages
● Takes in all information from the environment through our senses.
● Held ¼ of a second to decide whether to pay attention.
● Biology: Neurons firing at sense organs and along pathways to the brain.
● Iconic Sensory: Something you are seeing (visual).
● Conversation—No sensory memory/no conversation.
● Hearing—Allows you to combine the words—con-ver-sat-ion
Working Memory (short-term memory)
● Whatever you are paying attention to right now (Thinking).
● Contents are from sensory memory (or long-term memory).
● Sorts and encodes information for putting into permanent storage.
● Lasts 20-30 seconds
● Capacity: 7+ or -2 (depends on type of information).
- ● New information coming in interferes with old information/and old information
- interferes with new information.
Study Tip #6
Spread out study time.
- Research—material learned over time is
- retained better/study one (1) hour a day for five days.
Study Tip #7
- Do not study for more than 60 to 90
- minutes without a break.
- Why?—Effortful processing is work and
- takes energy.
Retrieval (Three (3) Types)
Three types of retrieval
1. Recall-without clues.
2. Recognition—know it when you see it.
- Cover answer choices/say answer to
- yourself/then answer—answer in your head first.
Relearn—learn something a lot faster.
Study Tip #8
- Spend most of your study time practicing
- retrieving the information.
Experiment: For the same amount of time.
Group A—Read the material over and over.
Group B—Read the material and practice.
- Picturing it results when tested—Group
- A—20%—Group B—80%
Study Tip #9
Use flashcards to repeatedly practice/retrieving the information/review flashcards dozens of times.
Overlearn—keep reviewing even after you know (learn) the information.
Make flashcards on lecture notes.
Front of flashcard—ex. 3 memory tasks.
Front—3 memory tasks
- Back—1) Encoding—Putting information into
Back—2) Storage—Keeping information.
- Back—3) Retrieval—Calling information up
- from memory.
- Make 2-3 cards/review/make 2-3 more
- cards/Review 4-6/make 2-3 more cards/Break into pieces/Do not read front/then back/read front/try to remember what’s on the back.
Guess and Peak Method
- Look at first letter of flashcard—try to
- Memories are stored in a web of
Study Tip #10
When you are having trouble retrieving an answer to a test question, turn the paper over and try brainstorming.
Context is stored along with memories
Experiment: List of syllables
Which Two (2) Groups Did Best
- Groups 1/4 did best—explanation for déjà
Study Tip #11
- If possible, study some in the room
- you’ll be tested in.
Use context as a cue to retrieval.
State Dependent Memory
- Our internal condition (Physiological) is
- also a retrieval cue.
E.g. mood/sober vs. intoxicated.
- Memories encoded in a condition are
- retrieved more easily when in the same condition.
Study Tip #12
The most popular study tip: study and then sleep to avoid interference.
The average person (18-29) says old age is 67.
The average person (60+) says old age is 76.
Study of changes associated with age.
- Key Issue: Are you the way you are
- because you were born that way or because you became that way.
Nature vs. Nurture (Biology vs. Environment)
- 1. Biology—Genetics/What we inherit from our
- biological ancestors.
2. Environment—How your parents raised you.
- Small correlation between birth
- order/IQ/oldest one on family higher IQ.
- Community we live in/region/school/peers
- and relationships with peers.
Culture—influences us major/choices.
- Both—Biology and Environment interact
- with each other (intertwined).
- Biology influences
- environment/Environment influences biology.
How Biology Influences Environment
- As adults, people who were cute babies
- have higher social skills.
- Physical appearances influences how
- people treat us/vice versa.
- We choose environments that match/fit our
How Environment Influences Biology
- Learning/Practice changes physical
- structure of our brain.
- Young children who are/were
- abused/neglected may not develop normally in the area of the brain where people
- typically feel empathy.
Gender/Genetic Diseases/Fingerprint/DNA/Eye Color.
A role of fathers in children’s life.
Do Dad’s Matter
Quote: H. Biller—“Father neglect is the most common form of child mistreatment in our society.”
Women are not necessarily designed to be better parents.
Men are just as capable of good parenting as women are/depends on individual and how motivated they are.
Recent Research: Expectant dad’s and new dads experience changes in hormone levels same as pregnant women (oxytocin).
Mega Study—Combine results of many studies.
Over 100 studies done worldwide.
A father’s love and acceptance is as important as the mother’s predicting the well being of the child.
Research—Growing up without a dad/are at higher risk of various psychological and social problems.
More likely to smoke/abuse alcohol/drugs/aggressive/commit crimes (risk higher).
Boys—Are more likely to develop an exaggerated idea of masculinity.
They are more sexually promiscuous/more abusive to women.
Fathers—are more important than mothers—in helping their kids develop self-reliance/assertiveness/and self-discipline.
Forty-year-old (40) men/women.
- Those with and actively involved were at
- (40) to be happily married.
More likely to be successful at work.
More likely to be empathetic.
More likely to be tolerant.
- Socially mature/less likely to be
Harder on children than the death of a parent.
Boys—tend to act out (misbehave)/get in more fights/academic problems/disobedient.
Girls—Internalize/feel sad/hurt/abandoned on inside/doesn’t show until teenage years.
Adolescent Girls—from divorced families are more sexually active/more short-term relationships with men/fear betrayal/rejection/from men.
Adults less happy/also more likely to get divorced themselves.
Blackboard—Handout on child abuse/two (2) pages/read first page/second page/read/answer questions.
Thursday (Peg Memory Quiz).
B. On Blackboard—Child Abuse
B. On Blackboard—Child Abuse
Adult Development: Physical Changes
1. Most physical abilities peak in mid 20s/physical strength/reaction time/reproduce capacity/manual dexterity.
2. Decline is so gradual that it isn’t noticeable for most people for decades.
Lifestyle has more impact on our physical condition than age—until very old age.
Healthy Diet/Exercise/Sleeping/Not Smoking/Handle Stress/No (excessive) drinking.
No drugs/wear seatbelt/avoid texting while driving.
- Younger adults are more likely to get
- minor illnesses (colds/flues/viruses)/than older adults.
- Twenty-year-old (20) more likely 2x more
- likely to get cold/flue than 65-year-old.
- Major illnesses/heart disease/cancer/older
- adults are more likely to get them.
- What percent of people over age of 65
- live in nursing homes/(less than 5%).
- What percent of people in the U.S. are
- exactly 75 years old—have Alzheimer’s disease (3%).
What Causes Alzheimer’s Disease?
Deterioration of neurons that produce tangles of neurons.
An active mind is at lower risk of Alzheimer’s.
How to slow down the deterioration of the body and the brain?
- Death of neurons—largely counteracted by
- development of new neurons.
Developing new connections between neurons.
Study—subjects (non-active/elderly people/70s-80s).
Control Group—continued to not exercise.
Experimental Group—Walking Program.
Experimental Group—had improved memory/memory got better from exercising/improved judgment.
Principle: use it or lose it.
We are more likely to rust from lack of use than to wear out from overuse.
B. Cognitive Changes
Overall intelligence (IQ)
Cross-sectional study (combined effects of age and education differences).
Longitudinal Study—same subjects over long periods of time.
Not much deterioration until age 85.
Recognition Retrieval—does not decline with age (used more in life/most needed).
Recall Retrieval—Does decline with age.
Speed of Thinking
Does decline with age.
Older people do well (longer alive/more words (learned).
Older people do well.
Older people do well.
- Expert knowledge about life in general
- and good judgment about how to act in complex circumstances.
- Older people do better than young people
- on tests on wisdom/life experiences.
What would you like to do?
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