AGRY 335 Exam I Part II

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Anonymous
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202847
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AGRY 335 Exam I Part II
Updated:
2013-02-24 14:41:58
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Weather Climate
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weather and climate exam I part II
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  1. Teten’s Formula
    The empirical formula of the relation of dew point and temperature
  2. How is global warming causing more storms?
    • More moisture in air
    • more sever storms
    • same rainfall in shorter amount of time
  3. HYGRISTOR
    • Humidity sensor
    • glass/plastic strip covered with moisture sensitive film of LiCl, w/ metal edges
    • measures resistance of the chemical changes
    • outside air has to pass it
    • on radiosondes
  4. THERMISTOR
    • measures temperature
    • Ceramic covered metallic rod
    • resistance changes with air temp
  5. ASOS Modules for anaysis
    • Sensor Module: Measure parameters (temp, dewpoint, etc.)
    • Data Collection: Collects & preprocesses the data (hourly)
    • Cenetral Data Platform: Competes data processing (apply algorithms)
    • Data Distribution: Provides final output
    • Liquid Precipitation Accumulation Sensor
    • tipping bucket
    • heated to melt frozen precip
    • ~.01 in
    • Hygrothermometer
    • dewpoint
    • Chilled mirror and optical system
    • aspirator and transmitter
    • air temperature is easier to measure than dew point
    • Freezing Rain Sensor
    • Vibrating probe, frequency ∆ = ice
    • checks with LED weather indicator if it is preciping
    • Cloud Height Sensor / Ceilometer
    • invisible laser radiation to detect cloud levels
    • like sonar
    • Visibility sensor
    • Uses forward scatter technique (Xe)
    • Photometer- day/night
    • Light Emitting Diode Weather Indicator / Weather Sensor
    • Precip Type and amount
    • Weather-particle-induced optical scintillation
    • Wind Sensor
    • speed & direction
    • physically aligned to north
    • Anemometer- photo interrupter counts
    • Potentiometer- direction, voltage level
    • heated
  6. Thunderstorm Sensor
    detects cloud-to-ground and cloud-cloud discharges
  7. Ground to air radio
    • GTA
    • updates pilots on conditions
    • METAR format
  8. Absolute Humidity
    • h
    • kg/m3
    • doesn't change with temp
    • amount of water vapor in the air
  9. Specific Humidity
    • Mass of water vapor existing in a given mass of air
    • kg/kg
    • g/kg
  10. Saturation specific humidity
    • hsat
    • max water vapor that can exist
    • changes with temperature
  11. Mixing ratio
    • r
    • when other gases are used
    • mass of water vapor to any other gas
    • Saturation mixing ration- maximum possible
  12. Relative humidity
    • q
    • RH = (q/qsat) x 100
    • can ∆ w/ temp
  13. Aspirated Hydrometer
    • swing around in air
    • moist and dry thermometer
  14. Vapor Pressure
    • the part of the total atmospheric pressure due to water vapor
    • depends on temp and density
  15. CAPE
    • Convectional available potential energy
    • Higher the CAPE more potential for thunderstorms
  16. CIN
    • Collective inhibitor
    • Higher CIN = stable
    • Low CIN w/ High CAPE = Thunderstorms
  17. Adiabatic
    assumes no exchange btw air parcel and atmosphere
  18. Dibatic
    • exchange of air
    • cloud growth
    • boundary layer growth
  19. Lapse Rate
    • Rate at which air temp is decreasing w/ height
    • ELR- environment for more than DALR/MALR is unstable
    • DALR- dry ariabtic, 10 C/km
    • Conditionally Stable
    • MALR- moist ariabtic, 5 C/km
  20. LCL
    • Lifting Condensation level
    • where clouds form
    • occurs where dew point = temperature
  21. Vertical Mixing
    • Frontal Lifting: warmer air pushed up by cold air
    • Convergance: land/sea breeze- H @ sea surface, L @ land surface
    • Orographic Lifting: Lifted up mountians
    • Local Convergence: N. Hemisphere- anticyclone air goes up, right hand rule
  22. Chilled Mirror Hydrometer
  23. Signs for unstable:
    Lifted Index
    Showalter Index
    K-Index
    CAPE
    Total of Totals
    SWEAT Index
    • Lifted Index: Negative
    • Showalter Index: Negative
    • K-Index: Large Positive
    • CAPE: Large Positive
    • Total of Totals: Large positive
    • SWEAT Index: Large positive
  24. Cloud development
    • Horizontal: Stratus
    • Vertical: Cumulus
    • Low- 1500m Stratus
    • Mid- 5000m Alto
    • High- 8km Cirus
    • Nimbus- moisture for rain
  25. Cirus
  26. Altocumulus
  27. Stratus
  28. Stratocumulus
  29. Cumulus humilis
  30. Cumulus congestus
  31. Cumulonimbus
  32. Entrainment
    • how clouds grow
    • when excess air is coming into area
  33. CDD & HDD
    • Heating/Cooling degree days
    • how to calculate bill
    • HDD= mean < 65, 65-mean
    • CDD= mean > 65, mean-65
  34. Decode
    KLAF 030445Z 35007KT 15SM SKC 17/13 A2986
    • KLAF: 4 Letter station ID
    • 030445Z: Date 03/Time0445Z 24hour
    • 35007KT: Wind direction, 350˚form N, 07 speed in KT (knots)
    • 15SM: visibility 15 Stratus Miles
    • SKC: Sky conditions- skyclear
    • 17/13: Temp/dew point
    • A2986: altimeter setting, in. o Hg
  35. METAR sky conditions
    • SKC- sky clear
    • FEW (1-2/8)
    • SC- scattered clouds
    • BKN- broken (5-7/8)
    • OVC- overcast

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