FA, Q2, Muscoloskeletal, I

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HLW
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202874
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FA, Q2, Muscoloskeletal, I
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2013-02-23 19:55:39
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FA Q2 Muscoloskeletal
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FA, Q2, Muscoloskeletal, I
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  1. what is a non-painful fluid accumulation in the carpus/hock often due to short stalls/improper bedding? treatment?
    • hygroma
    • do NOT stick needle in it- can introduce infection/refills anyway; leave it alone unless severe/causing problems
  2. what is cow's stance with coxofemoral luxation?
    • may or may not be down;
    • if standing, luxated leg held back and hip rotated out
  3. When evaluating coxofemoral luxation, what are the 3 landmarks you look at for refence? how lame do you expect this cow to be?
    • tuber coxae, tuber sacrale and greater trochanter of femur
    • 3 or 4 out of 5 lameness
  4. for hip luxation, is prognosis better in adult or young? what are tx options?
    • better for young; Ehmer sling and stall confinement
    • adults recur often
  5. In small ruminant with cervical injury, what are limb reflexes usually like? Is sensation still intact usually?
    • hind limb reflexes and sensation intact
    • limb tone normal or reduced
  6. what are the 3 forms of septic arthritis?
    • primary: direct puncture
    • secondary: infection extends into joint (foot rot)
    • tertiary: septicemia (umbilical infection, etc)
  7. What is common bacterial isolate in feedlots with septic arthritis? What about Dairy? What will be isolated in nearly all cases with established abscesses?
    • feedlot: histophilus somni (shipping fever/pneumonia)
    • dairy:mycoplasma (from mastitis)
    • established abscess: archanobacterium pyogenes
  8. What is the isolate from septic arthritis in sheep? what are 2 other conditions associated with this?
    • Chlamydophila pecorum
    • KCS and abortion
  9. failure of passive transfer is often involved with septic arthritis. How do you test for this? What values indicate failure?
    • check total protein in adequately hydrated pt
    • 4.5-5 is not good; less 4.5 is complete failure
  10. with joint fluid analysis, what results tell you the joint is infected?
    • bacteria present (do culture!)
    • nucleated cell count >10,000 w/80% neutrophils
    • TP >4mg/dl
    • (radiographic changes will NOT be visible for 2-3 weeks!)
  11. what is tx for septic arthritis?
    • systemic Abs based on culture
    • joint lavage (only helps if early)
    • NSAIDs
    • correct sepsis if present
  12. what disease is characterized by poor confirmation/strait hocks and deterioration of joint cartilage? How does this affect breeding?
    • degenerative joint disease
    • should not allow animal to mount, change to AI methods
  13. what deficiency is associated with rickets? who is affected?
    • phosphorus +/- vit. D deficiency
    • osteodystrophy in young, growing; esp. crias in northern hemisphere
  14. what are classical findings for rickets in crias? What about on radiographs?
    • decreased rate of gain
    • "string of pearls" on costochondral junction
    • stiff/lame
    • enlarged joints/curved limbs
    • rads: wide distal physes; metaphysis may be cupped
  15. how do you treat rickets?
    • injectable vit D for tx (oral for prevention)
    • adequate dietary Ca/P
    • can supplement dam so colostrum is high in Vit. D
  16. what is arthrogryposis? Beef or dairy? what is the cause?
    • congenital disease w/flexural deformities - results in dystocia
    • Beef breeds
    • from blue tongue virus, lupine alkaloids, genetic in charlois
    • humanely euthanize
  17. how do you treat contracted tendons?
    splinting is often successful
  18. What is the common name for ovine hereditary chondrodysplasia? what breed is affected by this autosomal recessive trait?
    • Spider Lamb syndrome
    • Suffolk sheep
  19. what is appearance of sheep with spider lamb syndrome? how is this managed?
    • knock kneed w/kyphosis
    • cull carrier rams
  20. What type of virus is caprine arthritis encephalitis? what cells does it infect? Where do these cells localize to?
    • lentivirus/retrovirus
    • macrophages
    • mammary gland, lungs, CNS, synovium
  21. how do goats get CAE?
    through dam's colostrum/milk - viremic for life
  22. leukoencephalomyelitis is the rare manifestation of CAE. What age are affected goats? what is presentation?
    • young 2-6 mos
    • rear leg paresis/paralysis
    • neuro signs and interstitial pneumonia
  23. polysynovitis is the more common form of CAE. what age are affected goats? what is presentation?
    • adults; >6mos
    • walk on carpal jt (hyperplasia of synovium)
    • hard utter but normal (decreased) milk
    • wt loss
  24. other than neuro and arthritis, what are two other forms of CAE?
    • mastitis
    • interstitial pneumonia ("wasting away")
  25. What does it mean if AGID test for CAE is positive?
    exposure but not necessarily infected
  26. what is tx for CAE? what is important prevention methods?
    • symptomatic only
    • cull or segregate infected dams; do not let young ingest colostrum from infected dam/can pasteurize
  27. How does half life of CK compare to AST?
    • CK rises quickly and drops quickly; T1/2 of 2hours
    • AST slower to rise and stays longer; T1/2 of 7-10days
  28. AST is not specific for myonecrosis because it comes from what other sources?
    • skeletal muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • liver
    • RBCs
  29. what does it mean to have elevated AST with decreasing(from previous sample)/normal CK?
    resolving myonecrosis
  30. nutritional myodegeneration is due to deficiency of what?
    White Muscle Disease = deficiency in *Selenium* (and Vit. E)
  31. Selenium is a component of what anti-oxidant?
    glutathione peroxidase (can test for this)
  32. What are the two major forms of nutritional myodegeneration? which is slow onset vs. acute presentation? which form produces frothy nasal discharge?
    • cardiac: acute death w/frothy nasal discharge
    • skeletal: slower onset, stiff limbs/muscle pain
  33. why is pneumonia a common clinical sign associated with white muscle disease?
    young can't suckle due to dysfunction of pharyngeal muscles and tongue-- aspiration pneumonia
  34. Is it more important to measure selenium or Vit. E levels if you suspect white muscle disease?
    • selenium (and glutathione peroxidase)
    • vit. E not consistent
  35. is myoglobinuria more likely to be present in younger or more mature animals that present with white muscle disease?
    • older
    • (babies don't have enough muscle mass to develop myoglobinuria)
  36. what is zanker's necrosis?
    white lines in heart/skeletal muscle w/white muscle disease
  37. How do you treat white muscle disease/nutritional myodegeneration?
    • injectable Selenium + fluid diuresis (myoglobinu is renal toxin)
    • cardiac form doesn't respond to tx
  38. what is causative agent for Black Leg? where does this agent exist?
    • clostridium chauvoei (G+ anaerobe)
    • found in soil and GI of ruminants
  39. what is clinical sign of black leg?
    • gangrenous myositis following IM injection, trauma, migration from GI
    • crepitus, fever, sudden death
  40. what would necropsy of black leg reveal?
    • linear hemorrages in affected muscles
    • necrosis, inflammation/edema, ephysema
  41. how is black leg treated?
    • debride/open muscle to stop anaerobic environment
    • Penicillin (drug of choice for clostridium)
    • supportive care
    • (feed lots can't go to slaughter with open wounds, euthanize)
  42. Is there a vaccine for black leg?
    • yes, a good one/efficacious
    • multivalent, requires boosters
  43. what is causative agent of malignant edema? how do animals become infected?
    • clostridium septicum
    • in soil - through open wound
    • (especially after dystocia - fecal contamination)
  44. what are clinical signs for malignant edema?
    • wet, doughy swelling around wound, usually goes down one leg
    • fever, anorexic,
    • death in 1-2 days
  45. what is treatment and prevention for malignant edema?
    • same vx as for black leg (multivalent clostridum vx)
    • Penicillin + debride + supportive care

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