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what are some common causes of post-parturition downer cows?
- milk fever
- obturator nerve paralysis
- subluxated femur
- coliform mastitis
what are the "5 M's" of downers?
- metabolic (Mg/Ca)
- miscellaneous (LSA in spine, starvation)
What are some common causative agents of toxic mastitis? is this an alert or non-alert downer?
- E. coli
- Staph aureus in heifers
what is common causative agent for toxic metritis? alert or non-alert downer?
Are metabolic downers alert or non-alert?
early usually alert then later non-alert as severity increases
what is a miscellaneous form of downer in camelids? alert or non?
- meningeal worm
- usually *alert*
what are some advantages and disadvantages of using tilt table to examine cow feet?
- can examine all 4 quickly
- Dis: radial n. paralysis possibly, can bloat
how do you describe cow with lameness score of 1? what about 2 and 3?
- 1- normal
- 2- arches back when walking
- 3- arches back when walks and stands; shorter strides
How do you describe cow with lameness score of 4? what about 5?
- 4- arches back when walks and stands; visibly favors 1+ legs
- 5- very arched; refuses to bear wt on limb
what is the 90% rule?
- 90% lameness localized to foot
- 90% in the rear limb
- 90% on the lateral claw
why is it so important to disinfect hoof trimming tools especially when working with small ruminants?
Dichelobacter nodosum is contagious
what are some conditions that will cause swelling of coronary band?
- *foot rot*
- infection of deeper structures
- fractures of digital bones
Peracute laminitis is usually a result of what?
is chronic laminitis usually an individual or herd problem? front or rear feet? severe or mild lameness?
- rear feet
- mild/subclinical lameness
Does subacute rumen acidosis lead to peracute or chronic laminitis? what is the effect on the hoof?
- SARA leads to chronic laminitis (laminitis months later)
- abnormal growth - "slipper foot" and paintbrush lesions
what is most important way to prevent chronic laminitis?
take care of rumen - long fiber, good quality hay
what is interdigital necrobacillosis? how is it acquired in cattle?
- foot rot
- wet/muddy conditions - laceration in foot allows access of fusobacterium necrophorum
what is tx for interdigital necrobacillosis? what does it mean if tx not working within 7days?
- systemic Abs (PPG, oxytet, ceftiofur, sulfonamides)
- koppertox + debride necrotic tissues
- if tx not working, it has spread to deeper tissues and may require surgery
is there a vaccine for foot rot?
yes but questionable efficacy and $$$ so not commonly used
will septic arthritis of the coffin/pastern joint cause swelling above coronary band? what are common isolates from this?
- yes, swelling
- F. necroforum and A. pyogenes
what is treatment for digital bone infection?
anesthetize foot + drill away infected bone + *lavage* + block good claw + *Abs*
what is prognosis of cow with digital amputation?
salvage procedure bc breakdown of contralateral claw in 12-18 months
what is causative agent of foot rot in sheep/goats? how is this acquired?
- dichelobacter nodosus (G- anaerobe) w/ F. necrophorum
- *contagious*; carrier animals maintain in deep cracks (can't survive off host very long)
what is pathogenesis of foot rot in sheep?
F. necrophorum causes inflammation and hyperkeratosis - D. nodosus uses pilli to attach in cracks; exotoxins allow deeper penetration
what is concern with footbaths as treatment for foot rot in sheep?
sip the dip - copper toxicity
Hairy heel warts/digital dermatitis is a problem in dairy or beef? herd or individual problem?
- herd (wet conditions, recent additions)
what is treatment for digital dermatitis?
how does bruised sole result in subsolar abscess?
blood clot forms between sensitive/insensitive lamina - bacateria colonizes
will subsolar abscess/white line disease cause swelling? what is treatment?
- no swelling but can have severe lameness
- pare out infection, remove undermined sole,
- (Abs not usually needed)
What is a sole ulcer (rusterholtz ulcer)? common in front or rear feet? dairy or beef?
- horny sole loss - ischemic necrosis - granulation tissue
- rear feet
- dairy in wet/winter conditions
how is sole ulcer treated?
trim claws and remove granulation tissue
what is interdigital fibroma (corn)? front or rear (bulls v. cow)? Treatment?
- thickened interdigital skin - mass protrudes
- bull: front
- cow: rear
- no tx needed (if lame then surgically remove)
is horizontal or vertical hoof crack due to nutritional disturbances?
what is pathophysiology associated with fescue foot?
ingest fescue - vasoconstriction in hoof/periphery - thrombosis- ischemia - gangrene/necrosis of tail and ears -> no tx, euthanize
what species get the genetic condition spastic paresis? what is age of onset?
- pygmy goats and cattle
- onset 3wk-1yr
what is age of onset for periodic spasticity of cattle (barn cramps)? what is treatment?
- no treatment, consider quality of life
what is difference in presentation between spastic paresis and periodic spasticity?
- age of onset (young for spastic paresis; older for periodic)
- periodic: kick back leg out but then it stops and leg not rigid when put down
- spastic paresis: straight hock, pendulous leg, stays rigid