2.3.2 + 2.4.1

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Author:
efrain12
ID:
202887
Filename:
2.3.2 + 2.4.1
Updated:
2013-02-23 21:17:21
Tags:
bios
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Description:
nucleic and genes
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  1.  What are the blue and green colors describing on diagram?
    bases
  2. What are the yellow things on the ladder?
    phsophate groups on every rung
  3. In DNA, what type of sugars will be present?
    deoxyribose
  4. In RNA, what type of sugar will be present?
    ribose
  5. What determines the primary structure of a DNA molecule?
    the sequence of deoxyribonucleotides
  6. What joins two nucleotides together?
    a phosphodiester bond
  7. What is an Ester bond?
    a bond that consists of an ionrganic or organix acid in which at least one OH group is replaced by an O alkyl group
  8. On the bottom of pic, an O group replaces an OH
  9. (left side)(2)
    -an ester bond will connect 3rd prime carbon to phosphate.

    -5th prime carbon will connect to phosphate through ester linkage
  10. What is a phosphodiester?
    • -the phosphate is binding two nucleotides in 2 seperate spots by the 3rd and 5th carbon
  11.  ***study it
  12. (CLUES TO STRUCTURE) What did chemists know before about DNA? (2)
    -DNA had nucleotides

    -Nucleotides were linked by phosphodiester bonds
  13. What were 3 findings of chargaffs experiments?
    -total # of purines and pyrimidines are equal

    -number of A's equaled the number of T's

    -number of C's equaled the number of G's
  14. Who did the studies "xray crystallography?
    wilkins and franklin
  15. Which is bigger purines or pyrimidines?
    purines
  16. What were the dimensions during xray crystallography? (3)
    .34 nm, 2.0 nm, 3.4 nm
  17. What experiment was used to find out aout DNA struture?
    xray crystallography
  18.  (2)
    -pyrimidines and purines are bonded by hydrogen bonds

    -
    known as Complimentary pairing
  19. what was the space between bases?
    .34 nm
  20.  what was the width of helix?
    2.0 nm
  21.  What is the length of one complete twist of the helix?
    3.4 nm
  22.  what changed happen?
    -there is a T where an A is supposed to be, and then the other side of pairing theres an A where a T is supposed to be

    -the yellow line between bases  is hydrogen bonds
  23. What do genes hold?
    information for proteins
  24. DO all genes code for proteins?
    no, jsut most
  25. In central dogma, how is DNA viewed?
    information storage
  26. In central dogma, how is RNA viewed?
    information carrier
  27. In central dogma, how are proteins viewed?
    active cell machinery
  28. What is a gene?
    particular stretch of DNA that contains the information to specify the amino acid sequence of a protein
  29. Is the information encoded in the base sequence of DNA directly translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins?
    no, it does not directly translated into amino acid sequence of proteins
  30. How much percent does the human genome code for proteins?
    3%

    ***most of RNA does not code for proteins
  31. DNA sequences define...
    • the genotype
    • *sequences of nucleotides
  32. Proteins defines the...
    phenotype
  33. What are 3 nucleotides that code for a single amino acid called?
    codon
  34. (DNA to mRNA) do they still have complimentary pairing?
    yes, pyrmidines to purines

    * A connect to U in RNA instead of A to T
  35.  (mrna to proteins) what happens on diagram?
    ultimately the mRNA will code for amino acids
  36. If there is a change in genotype, does that always mean the phenotype will change also?
    sometimes

    *silent mutation:  will ultimately lead to the same amino acid production even though the genotype changed

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