2.3.2 + 2.4.1

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  1. Image Upload
  2. Image Upload What are the blue and green colors describing on diagram?
  3. Image UploadWhat are the yellow things on the ladder?
    phsophate groups on every rung
  4. In DNA, what type of sugars will be present?
  5. In RNA, what type of sugar will be present?
  6. What determines the primary structure of a DNA molecule?
    the sequence of deoxyribonucleotides
  7. What joins two nucleotides together?
    a phosphodiester bond
  8. What is an Ester bond?
    a bond that consists of an ionrganic or organix acid in which at least one OH group is replaced by an O alkyl group
  9. Image Upload
    On the bottom of pic, an O group replaces an OH
  10. Image Upload(left side)(2)
    -an ester bond will connect 3rd prime carbon to phosphate.

    -5th prime carbon will connect to phosphate through ester linkage
  11. What is a phosphodiester?
    • -the phosphate is binding two nucleotides in 2 seperate spots by the 3rd and 5th carbon
    • Image Upload
  12. Image Upload ***study it
  13. (CLUES TO STRUCTURE) What did chemists know before about DNA? (2)
    -DNA had nucleotides

    -Nucleotides were linked by phosphodiester bonds
  14. What were 3 findings of chargaffs experiments?
    -total # of purines and pyrimidines are equal

    -number of A's equaled the number of T's

    -number of C's equaled the number of G's
  15. Who did the studies "xray crystallography?
    wilkins and franklin
  16. Which is bigger purines or pyrimidines?
  17. What were the dimensions during xray crystallography? (3)
    .34 nm, 2.0 nm, 3.4 nm
  18. What experiment was used to find out aout DNA struture?
    xray crystallography
  19. Image Upload (2)
    -pyrimidines and purines are bonded by hydrogen bonds

    known as Complimentary pairing
  20. Image Uploadwhat was the space between bases?
    .34 nm
  21. Image Upload what was the width of helix?
    2.0 nm
  22. Image Upload What is the length of one complete twist of the helix?
    3.4 nm
  23. Image Upload what changed happen?
    -there is a T where an A is supposed to be, and then the other side of pairing theres an A where a T is supposed to be

    -the yellow line between bases  is hydrogen bonds
  24. What do genes hold?
    information for proteins
  25. DO all genes code for proteins?
    no, jsut most
  26. In central dogma, how is DNA viewed?
    information storage
  27. In central dogma, how is RNA viewed?
    information carrier
  28. In central dogma, how are proteins viewed?
    active cell machinery
  29. What is a gene?
    particular stretch of DNA that contains the information to specify the amino acid sequence of a protein
  30. Is the information encoded in the base sequence of DNA directly translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins?
    no, it does not directly translated into amino acid sequence of proteins
  31. How much percent does the human genome code for proteins?

    ***most of RNA does not code for proteins
  32. DNA sequences define...
    • the genotype
    • *sequences of nucleotides
  33. Proteins defines the...
  34. What are 3 nucleotides that code for a single amino acid called?
  35. Image Upload(DNA to mRNA) do they still have complimentary pairing?
    yes, pyrmidines to purines

    * A connect to U in RNA instead of A to T
  36. Image Upload (mrna to proteins) what happens on diagram?
    ultimately the mRNA will code for amino acids
  37. If there is a change in genotype, does that always mean the phenotype will change also?

    *silent mutation:  will ultimately lead to the same amino acid production even though the genotype changed
Card Set:
2.3.2 + 2.4.1
2013-02-24 02:17:21

nucleic and genes
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