2.3.2 + 2.4.1
Card Set Information
2.3.2 + 2.4.1
nucleic and genes
What are the blue and green colors describing on diagram?
What are the yellow things on the ladder?
phsophate groups on every rung
In DNA, what type of sugars will be present?
In RNA, what type of sugar will be present?
What determines the primary structure of a DNA molecule?
the sequence of deoxyribonucleotides
What joins two nucleotides together?
a phosphodiester bond
What is an Ester bond?
a bond that consists of an ionrganic or organix acid in which at least one OH group is replaced by an O alkyl group
On the bottom of pic, an O group replaces an OH
-an ester bond will connect 3rd prime carbon to phosphate.
-5th prime carbon will connect to phosphate through ester linkage
What is a phosphodiester?
-the phosphate is binding two nucleotides in 2 seperate spots by the 3rd and 5th carbon
(CLUES TO STRUCTURE) What did chemists know before about DNA? (2)
-DNA had nucleotides
-Nucleotides were linked by phosphodiester bonds
What were 3 findings of chargaffs experiments?
-total # of purines and pyrimidines are equal
-number of A's equaled the number of T's
-number of C's equaled the number of G's
Who did the studies "xray crystallography?
wilkins and franklin
Which is bigger purines or pyrimidines?
What were the dimensions during xray crystallography? (3)
.34 nm, 2.0 nm, 3.4 nm
What experiment was used to find out aout DNA struture?
-pyrimidines and purines are bonded by
what was the space between bases?
what was the width of helix?
What is the length of one complete twist of the helix?
what changed happen?
-there is a T where an A is supposed to be, and then the other side of pairing theres an A where a T is supposed to be
-the yellow line between bases is hydrogen bonds
What do genes hold?
information for proteins
DO all genes code for proteins?
no, jsut most
In central dogma, how is DNA viewed?
In central dogma, how is RNA viewed?
In central dogma, how are proteins viewed?
active cell machinery
What is a gene?
particular stretch of DNA that contains the information to specify the amino acid sequence of a protein
Is the information encoded in the base sequence of DNA directly translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins?
no, it does not
translated into amino acid sequence of proteins
How much percent does the human genome code for proteins?
***most of RNA does not code for proteins
DNA sequences define...
*sequences of nucleotides
Proteins defines the...
What are 3 nucleotides that code for a single amino acid called?
(DNA to mRNA) do they still have complimentary pairing?
yes, pyrmidines to purines
* A connect to U in RNA instead of A to T
(mrna to proteins) what happens on diagram?
ultimately the mRNA will code for amino acids
If there is a change in genotype, does that always mean the phenotype will change also?
*silent mutation: will ultimately lead to the same amino acid production even though the genotype changed