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used to indicate a benign tumor
carcinoma and sarcoma are used to describe ____
growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging
growth that causes tissue to increase in size by increasing the number of cells
What causes cells to have a tight adherence?
fibronectin or being surrounded with fibrous connective tissue
______ is the loss of specific appearance of parent cells.
anaplasia - cancer cells become small & rounded
Common metastasis for lung cancer
- lymph nodes
Common sites of metastasis for Breast cancer
Stage T1, NO, MO
- T1 - Increasing size and/or local extent of the primary tumor
- NO - no regional lymph node metastasis
- MO - no distant metastasis
_______ is a selective estrogen receptor
modulator (SERM). These drugs block the
effect of estrogen in women who have estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
because it relies on estrogen to grow.
SERMS are also used as chemoprevention in women at high risk for breast
cancer and in women with advanced breast cancer.
- It is recommended to be taken for 5 years to achieve the best benefit for risk reduction.
- Common side effects: hot flashes & weight gain
An abnormal accumulation of protein fluid in the subq tissue of the affected limb after a mastectomy is called _______.
- LymphedemaAvoid having BP taken, injections, or blood draws on the effected side
Best diagnostic test for adinocarcinoma of the lung.
PET – positron emission tomography scanning is becoming the most thorough way to locate metastases
Normal WBC count? What med would be given for low count?
- Normal 5,000-10,000
- Neupogen (filastrim) 5mcg/kg daily Subcut
Normal RBC count? Medication given for low count?
- Normal 4.7-6.1
- Epogen (procrit) - subcut 150 units/kg 3x/week
CEA - carcinoembryonic antigen. A nonspecific test, increased values indicate possible colorectal, stomach, or pancreatic cancer.
CA-125 cancer antigen test that measure presence of damaged endometrial & uterine tissue in the blood. Not used for screening.
These two tests are used as a baseline. Levels after treatment are compared to determine effectiveness.
Low neutrophil (WBC) count
Occures when cancer drugs leak into the surrounding tissues (infiltration)
Symptoms of a brain tumor
Anorexia, headaches & vomiting not related to eating, worse in morning.
Most common DI procedure for dx brain tumor?
- Symptoms of brain tumor
- headache in morning, ICP is decreased
- visual symptoms
Adenocarcinoma is cancer of what tissue?
- it doubles in 20-40 weeks
- commonly metastasis to brain, liver, lymph nodes, and pancreas
What tests are done to determine if adenocarcinoma has metastasized?
- PET - positron emission tomography
Side effects of radiation
- Taste alterations - aversion to red meat
- Skin changes - dry, thin
- Hair loss -
What type of cancer is multiple myeloma?
- Hematologic cancer, or cancer of the blood
- causes hypercalcemia - cancer in bone causes release of calcium into the blood stream
- Treatment - oral hydration to reduce Ca levels & reduce symptoms. IV 0.9% NS used when parenteral hydration is needed.
Meds for pts receiving radiation treatment?
- Dexamethasone - Reduce CINV
- Hydrocodone - 5mg for pain PO
- Ondansetron (Zofran) - 8 mg IV, prevents CINV
- Zolpidiem (Ambien) - 5 mg PO for sleep