final exam

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final exam
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  1. ______ is the theory of how people explain others behavior. for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions or external situations. internal dispositions could be enduring traits, motives, and attitudes. a teacher may wonder whether a child's underachievement is due to lack of motivation and ability or to physical and social circumstances. some attribute behavior to personality while others attribute it to behaviors.
    attribution theory
  2. ____ is physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm. aggression can take a variety of forms and be physical or be communicated verbally or non-verbally. aggression differs from what is commonly called assertiveness. hostile aggression springs from anger; its goal is to injure. instrumental aggression aims to injure but only as a means to some other end.
    aggression theory
  3. _______ springs from anger; its goal is to injure.
    hostile anger
  4. _________ aims to injure but only as a means to some other end.
    instrumental aggression
  5. ____ is the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs. assumes that human interactions are guided by social economics- we exchange not only material goods and money but also social goods such as love services and information. in doing so, we aim to minimize costs and maximize rewards. the theory does not contend that we consciously monitor costs and rewards, only that such considerations predict our behavior.
    social exchange theory
  6. _____ theory assumes that we feel tension or lack of harmony (dissonance) when two simultaneously accessible thoughts or beliefs (cognitions) are psychologically inconsistent. tension that arises when one is simulataneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. for example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justificaiton, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alterntive despite reasons favoring another. our attitudes change because we are motivated to maintain consistency among our cognitions.
    cognitive dissonance theory
  7. _____ experiments found that others presence improves the speed with which people do problems and improves the accuracy with which people perform simple motor tasks. it is the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. also, in the presence of others, the dominant responses are strengthened. social facilitation usually occurs when people work toward individual goals and when their efforts can be individually evaluated.
    social facilitation
  8. _____ is the proximity that leads to liking because it enables interaction and anticipatory liking. familiarity does not breed contempt, rather it fosters fondness. mere exposure to all sorts of novel stimuli-syllables, Chinese characters, musical selection, faces- boosts people rating for them, after they have been repeatedly exposed to them.
    mere exposure effect
  9. _____ is the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable. for example, in collective tug-of-war, individuals pulled 18% harder when they knew they were pulling alone than when they believed that behind them were two to five people also pulling.
    social loafing
  10. ____ is sometimes when huge blunders are made because of the tendency of decision making groups to suppress dissent in thte interest of group harmony. this phenomenon tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. some symptoms to this are an illusion to invulnerability, close-mindedness, conformity pressure and illusion of unanimity.
    group-think
  11. ______ requires that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected. also, the probabilities must stay constant from one selection to the next if more than one individual is selected. for example, every member of the population has an equal probability of being selected for the sample. suppose you want to sample students who attend your school. a list of all students would be needed; from that list, students would be chose at random to form the sample.
    random sampling
  12. _____ is a set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study. in statistics, the entire group that a researcher wishes to study is called this. the sample is selected from this.
    population
  13. _____ is a statistical technique that is used to measure and describe a relationship between two variables. it is a numerical value that describes and measures three characteristics of the relationship between X and Y. for example, if a researcher wanted to check students grades and then survey each family to obtain a measure of income. the resulting data could be used to determine whether there is a relationship between high school grades and family income. in this method, two different variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them.
    correlation
  14. ____ is when the two variables tend to change in the same direction: as the value of the X variable increases from one individual to another, the Y variable also tends to increase. when the x variable decreases, the y variable also decreases.
    positive correlation
  15. _____ is when the two variables tend to go in opposite directions. as the x variable increases, the y decreases. that is it is an inverse relationship.
    negative correlation
  16. a correlation has three characteristics
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. the direction of the relationship
    • 2. the form of the relationship
    • 3. the strength or consistency of the relationship. usually, the two variables are simply observed as they exist naturally in the environment.
  17. ____ is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher. it usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. the independent variable consists of the antecedent conditions that were manipulated prior to observing the dependent variable. it can be identified as the treatment conditions to which participants are assigned. for example, temperature in a study could be the independent variable as it is manipulated to observe scores within each condition.
    independent variable
  18. ____ is a statistical measure to determine a single score that defines the center of a distribution. the goal of this is to find the single score that is most typical or more representative of the entire group. the point is to find a single value that defines the average score and can serve as a representative for the entire distribution. in statistics, the concept of an average or representative score is called this.
    central tendency
  19. ____ is the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores. it is commonly known as the arithmetic average and is computed by adding all the scores in the distribution and dividing by the number of scores.
    mean
  20. ____ is the location of the midpoint of the distribution. if the scores in a distribution are listed in order from smallest to largest, this is the midpoint of the list.
    median
  21. ____ is the common observation among a group of scores. in a frequency distribution, this is the score or category that has the greatest frequency. in its common usage, it means "customary fashion" or "popular style"
    mode
  22. _____ is a type of idea or question; it makes a statement about something that may be true. it is a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it. once it is proposed, data must be gathered and evaluated in terms of whether the evidence is consistent or inconsistent with it.
    hypothesis
  23. ____ is a graph in which different points are plotted to show and evaluate the relationship between different variables. in this, each individual is represented by a point so that the horizontal position corresponds to the vertical. it's where scores are plotted as a single point on a diagram.
    scatter plot
  24. ______ is a measure of variability which indicates the average deviation of scores from the mean. a measure of variability is a number that characterizes the amount of spread in a distribution of scores. the goal is to compute a measure of the standard distance from the mean. variance which measures the average squared distance from the mean is not exactly what we want. the final step, simply makes a correction for having squared all the distances. thus, the new measure is the square root of the variance.
    standard deviation
  25. ____ means that all things are not the same. the goal is to measure the amount of variability for a particular set of scores, a distribution. in simple terms, if the scores in a distribution are all the same, then there is no variability. if there are small differences between scores, the variability is small and if there are large differences between scores then the variability is large. it describes the degree to which the scores are spread out or clustered together.
    variation
  26. _____ means each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions. the goal of this is to distribute the participant characteristics evenly. the decision to assign an individual to a particular condition is completely random and beyond the control of the researcher.
    random assignment
  27. suppose a hypothesis test revealed that a drug produced a significant decrease in cholesterol. the next question is how much reduction occured? this calls for estimation, in which the size of a treatment effect for the population is estimated. this is important because the presence of this does not necessarily mean that the results are large enough for use in practical applications. although the hypothesis test revealed that the drug produced a statistically significant change, it may not be clinically significant. little practical significance for real-world applications. this is _____
    statistical significance
  28. ____ is when individuals do not receive the experimental treatment. instead, they either receive no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. the purpose of this is to provide a baseline for a comparison with the experimental condition.
    control condition
  29. _____ is when individuals receive the experimental treatment.
    experimental condition
  30. ____ is a statistical technique that uses the mean and the standard deviation to transform each score (x value) into a z score or standard score. the purpose of this is to identify and describe the exact location of every score in a distribution. a second purpose of this is to standardize an entire distribution. each z-score tells the exact location of the original x within the distribution. the z scores form a standardized distribution that can be directly compared to other distributions that also have been transformed into this.
    z-score
  31. _____ is a technique involving focus on positive mental images in order to achieve a particular goal.
    visualization
  32. ____ is one of the two extreme models of organizational design. it is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network and centralization. other characteristics of this model include a clear chain of command, narrow spans of control and high specialization.
    mechanistic model
  33. _____ was developed by David McClelland, this theory states that achievement, power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
    McClelland's theory of needs
  34. _____ is the drive to excel, to achieve in a relationship set of standards
    need for achievement
  35. _____ is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have otherwise
    need for power
  36. _____ is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
    need for affiliation
  37. _____ is the basis by which jobs in an organziation are grouped together. division can be made by functions performed, product or service or even geography. hospitals are based by functions performed, ie. surgery, research, intensive care and accounting departments. proctor & gamble which produce tide, pampers, charmin and pringles place each product under an executive who has gloabal responsibility. firms do this based on geography, and they normally have western, southern, Midwestern and eastern regions.
    departmentalization
  38. _____ is when leadership and communication skills come to the forefront in distinguishing great managers. it is not solely based on technical quantitative skills. developing managers interpersonal skills also helps organizations attract and keep high performance employees. positive social relationships are associated with lower stress at work and lower intentions to quit.
    interpersonal factors
  39. ____ is a process that adapts employees to the organizations culture. there are 3 stages, prearrival stage, encounter stage and metamorphosis stage. prearrival stage is the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. encounter stage is when a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge. metamorphosis stage is the stage in which a new employee  changes and adjusts to the job, work group and organization.
    socialization
  40. ____ is the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviors of others, over novelty; they are conservative and resistant to change
    fundamental attribution error
  41. ____ in psychoanalytic theory ,is the repository of the drives, the emotions and the primitive. unconscious part of the mind that wants everything NOW. the primitive unconscious part of the personality which operates irrationally and acts on impulse.
    ID
  42. ____ in psychoanalytic theory is the relatively rational part of the mind that balances the competing claims of the id, the super ego, and reality. that aspect of the personality involved in self-preservation activities and in directing instinctual drives and urges into appropriate channels.
    ego
  43. _____ in psychoanalytic theory is the process of primary process thinking in which one thing stands for another. that aspect of personality representing the internalization of society's values, standards and morals; the inner conscious.
    super ego
  44. ____ is an integrated cluster of knowledge organized around a topic; includes expectations. these are made up of information from different sources, organized around various topics, themes and types. this may organize information according to objects, activities, people or ideas that are usually found together or share some basic features.
    schema
  45. _____ in social development begins with establishment of a close emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver; inferred from behaviors that elicit and maintain nearness between the two. for a child to develop this, sensory and response systems must be sufficiently mature and there must be a close interaction with a parent or other caregiver during the critical period of the first year. this is usually apparent by the time an infant is 6-9 months old and is promoted by circumstances that extend the duration and/or frequency of close physical contact.
    attachment
  46. ____ is a form of learning in which behavior (conditioned response) comes to be elicited by a stimulus (conditioned stimulus) that has acquired its power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. a form of learning in which an organism learns a new association between two stimuli- a neutral one and one that already elicits a reflexive response.
    classical conditioning
  47. _____ is the type of learning in which the probability or ratio of a response is changed in its consequences.
    operant conditioning
  48. ____ is a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. there's a motivating factor behind it. also, it can be conditioned. this is a conditioned response to a stimulus through either voluntary or involuntary intent. this is some type of action or reflex that you learn. for example, tying your shoes (crying is not an example).this is one that you decide to learn, unlike 'innate behavior'. this is not a natural behavior, instead it is learned by that being. you can learn these behaviors by watching others do them such as riding a bike or learning to write.
    learned behavior
  49. _____ is basically information being sent from neuron to neuron. it works at both the electrical and the chemical levels. when the space between two neurons is small enough the electrical signal can simply jump the gap and continue on its way. however, when the gap is too large, the signal must be converted from electricity to chemicals. these chemicals are ______ which can be defined as chemicals released by neurons which carry information from one neuron to another. these chemicals are then read or received by a neuron's synapses.
    neurotransmitter
  50. ____ is the loss of a person's sense of individuality and personal responsibility, a concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the losing of self-awareness in groups.
    deindividuation
  51. ____ is an aspect of centrism that refers to a preoperational child's difficulty in imagining a scene from someone else's perspective. difficulty in imagining a scene from someone else's point of view.
    egocentrism
  52. _____ in Jungian personalty theory, is the part of an individuals unconscious which is inherited, evolutionarily developed and common to all members of the species. it is responsible for our intuitive understanding of primitive myths, art forms, and symbols which are the universal archetypes of existence.
    collective unconscious
  53. Ozer and Benet-Martinez proceeded to summarize an impressively wide range of research documenting the effects of personality on these outcomes. They organized the traits into five large categories and associated them with individual outcomes such as happiness and long life, interpersonal outcomes such as good relationships and peers and acceptance, and what they called "institutional" outcomes including leadership an career success. all five of these broad traits have impacts on several different important life outcomes. for example, people who score high trait of extroversion tend to be happier than people who score low on this trait this is known as ____
    the big 5 traits
  54. what are the big 5 traits?
    extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism
  55. ____ is characterized by positive emotions, urgency and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. the trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. they enjoy being with people and are often perceived as full of energy. they tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "yes!" or "lets go!" to opportunities for excitement. in groups, they like to talk and assert themselves and draw attention to themselves, enjoy better psychological health, live longer lives, are more popular and are seen as better leaders.
    extroversion
  56. ____ is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. the trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. agreeable individuals value getting along with others. they are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests for others. these people also have an optimistic view of human nature. people who have healthier hearts than disagreeable people are, and they are less likely to get arrested. they tend to go far in careers.
    agreeableness
  57. _____ is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutiful and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations. the trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. it influences the way in which we control, regulate and direct our impulses. they show an even stronger tendency to achieve career success and it is also associated with religious beliefs and strong families ties. they also tend to be politically conservative.
    conscientiousness
  58. ____ is The tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger anxiety or depression it is sometimes called emotional instability or is reversed and referred to as emotional stability. according to eyesrnck's theory of personality, This is interlinked with low tolerance for stress or aversive stimuli. Those who score high in this are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. they are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems and emotional regulation can diminish the ability of a person scoring high on this to think clearly make decisions and cope effectively with stress. Lacking contentment in one's life achievement can correlate to this and increase a person's likelihood of falling into clinical depression.
    neuroticism
  59. _____ is the type of person that has a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity and a variety of experience. These are people who are open to experience and are intellectually curious also appreciative of art and are sensitive to beauty. They tend to be more creative and more aware of their feelings.
    openness
  60. _____ is a conflict occurring in the phallic stage in which a child desired the parent of the opposite sex and viewed the same-sex parent as a rival.
    oedipus complex
  61. ____ is when girls develop a sexual attachment to their father (or father figure) leading them to want to kill the mother and marry their father
    electra complex
  62. _____ includes everything that we are aware of. this is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. a part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of this but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious.
    conscious
  63. ____ is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness. most of the content of this is unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety or conflict. according to Freud, this continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
    unconscious
  64. ____ is a precondition for trust and trust is a prerequisite of social behavior, especially regarding important decisions. the effectiveness of this has long been known to politicians and advertisers.
    familiarity
  65. ____ is one of Piaget's developmental accomplishments in which the child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass. this accomplishment occurs during the operational stage of development between ages 7 and 11.
    conservation
  66. _____ is the genetic disposition of an individual organism to learn things and modify behaviors according to the environment.
    genetic predisposition
  67. _____ is determining that a person's problems reflect a particular disorder using consistency of assessment measure. a good assessment tool will always yield the same results in the same situation. a reliable diagnosis for example can be given when different diagnosticians are likely to agree on the diagnosis when they use the system to diagnose the same client.
    diagnostic reliability
  68. ____ is when people experience excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything. their problem is described as free-floating anxiety. symptoms: (feel) restless, keyed-up, or on edge; tire easily; have difficulty concentrating suffer muscle tension and have sleep problems- last at least 6 months
    general anxiety disorder
  69. _____ is when people experience a major disruption in their memories; lose ability to remember new information they just learned or old information they once knew well. changes in memory lack a clear physical cause. in such disorders, one part of the memory seems to be disassociated or separated from the rest. symptoms: amnesia.
    dysthymic disorder
  70. ____ forgets the past and travels to a new location
    dissociative fugue
  71. ____ is a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is length to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorder. it is a brain chemical that carries messages from neuron to neuron. abnormally low activity of us this is linked to causes of obsessive compulsive disorder.
    serotonin
  72. _____ are basic strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable ID impulses and avoid or reduce anxiety they arouse. the most basic is repression, preventing unacceptable impulses from ever reaching consciousness.
    defense mechanism
  73. _____ is when sometimes you cannot pinpoint a specific cause for your alarm, but still you feel tense and edgy, as if you expect something unpleasant to happen. the vague sense of being in danger is usually called this and it has the same features- the same increase in breathing muscular tension, perspiration and so forth as fear.
    anxiety
  74. ____ is key to the sense of identity, the link between our past, present and future
    memory
  75. _____ is the combined physiological and psychological adaptation to the experience of threats of adversities. the body will experience wear and tear and decreased capability to cope with future stresses as long as the threats continue and the need to maintain homeostasis still exists.
    allostasis
  76. _____ is what happens when the same adaptive (GAS) system that was designed to protect us actually tears us apart. it comes out of balance when there is a systemic malfunction that occurs either by repeated exposure to a perceived threat or poor health and life style choices on the part of the individual. ex: would be like someone revving the engine of a car to the highest RPM, overheating the engine and never changing the oil/or adding lubrication.
    allostatic load
  77. ____is when complex living organisms depend on both external and internal environments. one major function of the internal environment is to keep the body constant in the face of the changing external environment through various chemical and physical responses. this concept states that all physiological systems work in unison to keep the internal environment stable and balanced. ex: if the body's core temperature should move beyond relatively small established limits, then immediate efforts are made to lower the temperature through sweating, or to raise it through shivering.
    homeostasis
  78. ____ is a particular kind of problem-solving; it tries to match available resources with goals. there are six principles to this. 1) 80.20 rule 2) Parkinson's law 3) the principle of forced efficiency 4) momentum principle 5 ) concept of physic ram 6) principle of suggestion
    time management
  79. ____ is when the body after experiencing short-term stress (stress that comes after a sudden threat or danger) releases a stress-hormone response activating the flight-or-fight response. this is usually followed by deactivation at which you begin to calm down and all systems return to normal. short term arousal like this does not usually create problems; if anything it keeps the system in working order.
    relaxation response
  80. _____ is when the brain perceives a threat, this information comes through the thalamus to the hypothalamus, which in turn activates the automatic nervous system. for the immediate reaction, the sympathetic nervous system carries signals to the adrenal medulla that secretes this (aka as adrenaline) and norepinephrine into the bloodstream to be circulated to the organs. these hormones increase the heart rate, raise blood pressure, accelerate the rate of respiration, dilate bronchial tubs and inhibit digestive activities.
    epinephrine
  81. meditation can be defined as a state of intense concentration and inner stillness. people practice mediation in order to find inner peace, obtain mental awareness, empty the mind, achieve enlightenment, and experience true reality. it originated in the east an has been used for more than 2,500 years traditionally in religious practices. it is but one of the many applications of a discipline known as _____, which focuses on all the ways one can become more aware.
    mindfulness
  82. _____ is the focus on the self, which translates into "YOU" and "YOUR" perception of "YOUR" experiences. this view argues that you are free to choose your own behavior rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces. issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfillment and needs are paramount. the major focus is to facilitate personal development.
    humanistic theory
  83. ____ is one's own belief about themselves. these beliefs stem, in part, from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
    self-concept
  84. _____ is when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love
    unconditional positive regard
  85. _____ is when love seems to only come when certain conditions are met.
    conditioned positive regard
  86. _____ is a contemporary behavior therapy which operates under the assumption that what people believe influences how they act and feel.
    cognitive theory
  87. _____ refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development which underlie and guide psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy.
    psychoanalytic theory
  88. _____ focuses on the positive image of what it means to be human. human nature is viewed as basically good and humanistic theorists focus on methods that allow fulfillment of potential. Abraham Maslow proposed that an individual is motivated by a hierarchy of needs in which basic needs must be met before higher ones can be satisfied.
    humanistic perspective
  89. ____ proposes the hierarchy of needs.
    abraham maslow
  90. _____ is a clinical psychologist, that used the theory of self-concept, which he defined as an organized pattern of perceived characteristics along wit the values attached to those attributes. he also assumed that within each individual there is a biological drive toward growth of self-concept which can ultimately lead to self-actualization.
    Carl Rogers
  91. ______ is in which the therapist offers the client unconditional positive regard by supporting the client regardless of what they say. the warm, sympathetic therapeutic environment allows the client to be free of internalized conditions of worth and to resume the self-actualization process.
    client-centered therapy
  92. _____ tries to describe people according to recognizable traits of personality.
    trait perspective
  93. ____ is a construct describing a basic dimension of personality.
    trait
  94. using ____ , statisticians can group similar traits and broaden a measurement to find more general traits that affect a variety of behaviors
    factor analysis
  95. ____ suggests 3 dimensions, extroversion, neurotocism, and psychoticism
    eysenck
  96. ______ states that we learn behaviors through observation, modeling and motivation such as positive reinforcement. some influential psychologists of this theory were N.E. Miller and Albert Bandura. They found that this type of social learning as strengthened if the observed identified with their "model". This meant that children were more likely to repeat behaviors they had seen other children their age do, although they might model adults as well. learning is also strengthened if someone models a behavior he or she has seen rewarded. this leads to a motivation for the person to model this behavior in order to get the similar reward.
    social cognitive perspective
  97. _____ reflects emphasis on the client rather than on the non-directive methods. Characterized by a shift from clarification of feelings to a focus on the phenomenological world of the client. Rogers assumed that the best vantage point for understanding how people behave was from their own internal frame of reference. Focus is more on explicitly on the actualizing tendency as the basic motivational force that leads to client change.
    client-centered therapy
  98. ____ is based on the principle of classical conditioning, it is a basic behavioral procedure developed by Joseph Wolfe. Clients imagine successively more anxiety-arousing situations at the same time that they engage in a behavior that competes with anxiety. gradually, or systematically, clients become less sensitive (desensitized) to the anxiety arousing situation. this procedure can be considered a form of exposure therapy because clients are required to expose themselves to anxiety-arousing images as a way to reduce anxiety.
    systematic desensitization
  99. ____ breaks the unity-of-command concept. employees have 2 bosses (1) functional department managers (2) their product managers. found in - advertising agencies, aerospace firms, research and development laboratories, construction companies, hospitals, government, agencies, universities, management consulting firms.
    matrix model
  100. ____ is a theory stating that achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
    McClelland's theory of needs
  101. ____ is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be corrected to perform.
    theory X
  102. _____ is the assumption that employers like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self-distinction.
    theory y
  103. ____ is a phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.
    group think
  104. ____ is a method of psychotherapy developed by Carl Rogers in which the client determines focus and pace of each session.
    client centered therapy
  105. _____ is a psychotheraputic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal oriented procedures.
    cognitive behavior therapy
  106. ____ is a practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in  a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility.
    group think
  107. _____ is the mental process by which one word or image may spontaneously suggest another without logical connection. clients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind, regardless of how painful, silly, trivial, illogical or irrelevant it may be. clients flow with any meaning immediately without censorship.
    free association
  108. _____ explains personality & behavior of the unconscious. main emphasis was on sexuality, ID, ego and super ego.
    psychoanalytic theory
  109. ______ is a coping behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage or disability.
    coping mechanism
  110. ______ is change in inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
    evolutionary theory
  111. ____ measures where the center of a distribution is located.
    central tendency
  112. _____ is a variable that is manipulated by the researcher. it usually consists of two or more treatment conditions to which subjects or exposed. generally, it is the subject.
    independent variable
  113. ____ is one that is observed to assess the effect of the treatment.
    dependent variable
  114. ______ is the no-treatment condition. i.e: placebo
    control condition
  115. ____is the set of all the individuals of an interest in a particular study.
    population
  116. _____ is the set of individuals selected from a population
    sample
  117. _____ is the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others behaviors. (also called correspondence bias because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition).
    fundamental attribution error
  118. _____ is a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
    schema
  119. _____ is how and what we think about one another
    social cognition
  120. _____ is the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
    groupthink
  121. _____ is culturally provided mental instruction for how to act in various situations
    social scripts
  122. ____ is the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
    social loafing
  123. ____ is the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rate more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
    mere exposure effect
  124. ____ is loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
    deindividuation
  125. _____ is a state of clear objective awareness of what is going on at the moent
    mindfulness
  126. ____ is a balanced environment in the body that is internally regulated
    homeostasis
  127. ____ is the process by which bodily functions change in response to environmental or mental changes
    allostatis
  128. ____ is the excessive and prolonged environmental and mental challenges that leads to wear and tear on the body
    allostatic load
  129. ____ is a psychological and physiological reaction to a perceived threat that requires some action or resolution operating on cognitive, behavioral and biological levels and results in significant negative health effects when sustained
    stress
  130. ____ is essentially a kind of problem solving that involves managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems and seeking to master or reduce stress
    coping
  131. _____ is an array of evolved behavioral responses to perceived threats or physical intimidation's. this is a tactic the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
    defense mechanism
  132. ____ is the ability to create or the process of creating a visual image int he mind; often used as a technique of motivation
    visualization
  133. _____ is the physiological state achieved when one is relaxed
    relaxation response
  134. ____ is a problem solving technique that tries to match available resources with your goals
    time management
  135. ____ consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses. (we can describe people in terms of the ways they behave, such as whether they are outgoing, friendly, private or hostile)
    trait perspective
  136. _____ is a theoretical view emphasizing that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness)
    psychoanalytic perspective
  137. ____ is commonly referred to as being social and outgoing but in the big 5, it encompasses more, including traits such as active, outspoken, dominant etc.
    extraversion
  138. _____ is related to liberal values, open-mindedness, tolerance and creativity. it is also associated with superior cognitive functioning and IQ across the life span.
    openness
  139. ____ is when Adler thought that individuals have what is called as "social interest" or the desire to relate positively and productively with other people. he said that individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people and that they try to accomplish this to compensate for whatever they felt in their childhood was their weakest aspect.
    adler's theory of personality development
  140. ____ is comprised of the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO, 5 stage of personality development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)
    frued's personality theory
  141. ___ is concern for your own interests and welfare.
    egocentrism
  142. _____ means close acquaintance with or knowledge of something. the quality of being well known; recognizability based on long or close association.
    familiarity
  143. _____ describes the tendency to over-value dispositional or personality-based explanations for the observed behaviors of others while under-valuing situational
    explanations for those behaviors. This is
    most visible when people explain the behavior of others. It does not explain interpretations of one's own behavior—where situational factors are often taken into consideration.
    fundamental attribution error
  144. _____ is generally thought of as the losing of self-awareness in groups
    deindividuation
  145. _____ is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing and likeable that person appears to be.
    mere exposure effect
  146. _____ is the part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest.
    ID
  147. _____ is the part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and is responsible for reality testing and a sense of
    personal identity.
    ego
  148. ______ is the part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers
    super-ego
  149. _____ is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts
    ID
  150. The ____ develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. Ideally this works by reason.
    ego
  151. The  _____ incorporates the values and morals of society which are learnt from one's parents and others. It's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection.
    super ego
  152. ____ is the complex of emotions aroused in a young child, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a wish to exclude the parent of the same sex.
    oedipus complex
  153. ____ is a complex of females; sexual attraction to the father
    electra complex
  154. ____ is the personality theory that emphasizes individual growth and improvement.
    humanistic theory
  155. ____ is theories about how the human brain works and how humans think and learn.
    cognitive theory
  156. _____ is a psychological theory proposed by Sigmund Freud involving unconscious
    conflicts and specific stages of development; central themes include sexuality and male superiority.
    psychoanalytic theory
  157. ____ is a rare dissociative disorder in which two or more personalities with distinct memories and behavior patterns apparently exist in one
    individual
    multiple personality disorder
  158. _____ is consent by a patient to undergo a medical or surgical treatment or to participate in an experiment after the patient understands the risks involved
    informed consent
  159. a result is called _____ if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. In clinical trials, the level of this depends on the number of participants studied and the observations made, as well as the magnitude of differences observed.
    statistically significant
  160. _____ is a study undertaken by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and threats
    SWOT analysis
  161. SWOT analysis studies ______
    strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
  162. *** Taoism approach to stress management is ____
    wuwei
  163. ____ is a measure of the point about which a group of values is clustered; two measures of this are the mean, and the median. In statistics, this term relates to the way in which quantitative data tend to cluster around some value. A measure of this is any of a number of ways of specifying this "central
    value"
    central tendency
  164. _____ is a measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out.
    variation
  165. a _____ is a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables
    correlation
  166. _____ is a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect; capable of violent acts without guilt feelings
    antisocial personality disorder
  167. _____ is a general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness
    biopsychosocial approach
  168. ____ is a variable (often denoted by x) whose variation does not depend on that of another
    independent variable
  169. ____ is a kind of quantum field theory in two dimensions involving matrix-valued fields which is related to random triangulations.
    matrix model
  170. _____ is a model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli.
    mechanistic model
  171. _____ is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition.
    coping mechanism
  172. _____ posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and
    outside media influences. In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of
    the actions of others. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled. Further, media provide models for a vast array
    of people in many different environmental settings.
    social cognitive theory
  173. ____ is an attempt to understand leadership by examining the features of personality and behavior that are evidenced by leaders.
    trait perspective
  174. the three components of prejudice are _____
    in-group bias, mirror image perception, and deindividuation
  175. ____ is preferential treatment people give to those whom they perceive to be members of their own groups. the tendency to favor one's own group.
    in-group bias
  176. _____ refers to the reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive.
    mirror image perception
  177. _____ describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior
    schema
  178. ____ is culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
    social scripts
  179. _____ is a hormone that is released by the adrenal medulla and by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is also used as a drug to raise blood pressure and control heart rate
    norepinephrine
  180. ____ is a compound present in blood platelets and serum that constricts the blood vessels and acts as a neurotransmitter, involved in sleep, depression and memory and can also lead to violence
    serotonin
  181. ____ is a method of assigning subjects to two or more groups by chance
    random assignment
  182. ____ is a statistical measurement of the relationship between two variables. Possibilities range from +1 to –1. A zero indicates that there is no relationship between the variables. –1 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes down. +1 indicates a
    perfect positive correlation, meaning that both variables move in the same direction together.
    correlation
  183. _____ is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is vital for a test in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted.
    validity
  184. _____ is a sample derived by selecting patients such that each patient has an
    independent and fixed chance of selection. Whether or not a patient is selected is determined by chance, for example, by a table of random numbers.
    random sampling
  185. **** experiment is a research method in which ____
    the investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior
  186. _____ is the ability to plan and control how you spend the hours in your day to effectively accomplish your goals
    time management
  187. ____ is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures.
    cognitive behavior therapy
  188. ____ s being concerned with the social and physical environments, a state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self
    extraversion
  189. _____ is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a condition in which a person
    displays multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters), each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment and reports having more than one identity, each of which speaks, acts, and writes in a very different way
    dissociative personality disorder
  190. ____ is a chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. It is considered a chronic depression, but with less severity than major depressive disorder. This disorder tends to be a chronic, long-lasting
    illness. a type of mood disorder whose main characteristic is a chronically depressed mood that lasts for most of the day, for the majority of the time during a two-year period.
    dysthymic disorder
  191. ____ is a motivational model that attempts to explain how the needs for achievement, power and affiliation affect the actions of people from a managerial context. It is often taught in classes concerning management or organizational behavior.
    McClelland's theory of Needs
  192. _____ is a state of active, open attention on the present. you observe your thoughts and feelings from a distance, without judging them good or bad. Instead of letting your life pass you by, it means living in the moment and awakening to experience.
    mindfulness
  193. _____ a technique involving focusing on positive mental images in order to achieve a particular goal
    visualization
  194. _____ is a physical state that is the opposite of the fight-or-flight response. it results in reduced blood pressure and blood glucose levels, and lower breathing and heart rates.
    relaxation response
  195. ____ is a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone
    classical conditioning
  196. ____ is a treatment for phobias in which the patient is exposed to progressively more anxiety-provoking stimuli and taught relaxation techniques
    systematic desensitization
  197. ____ is a treatment whereby the therapist seeks see the world through the clients
    perspective, and to allow the client to view their situations with greater insight and acceptance, with an ultimate goal of growth and fulfillment.
    humanistic therapy
  198. ____ is a unconscious form of learning in which a behavior is linked to a specific stimulus through a process of reinforcement.
    operant conditioning
  199. *** DSM-IV not always all of the above... you have to understand what it does, understand patterns of behavior and the criteria set forth for it
  200. _____ is a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment
    control condition
  201. _____ is a subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group as a whole. When doing research, it is often impractical to survey every member of a particular population because the sheer number of people is simply too large. In order to make inferences about characteristics of a
    population, researchers can use a random sample.
    sample
  202. _____ is where an increase in one data set produces an increase in the other
    positive correlation
  203. _____ is a correlation where as one variable increases, the other decreases.
    negative correlation
  204. ____ is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
    it is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the
    relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might state, "This study is designed to assess that sleep deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep deprived."
    hypothesis
  205. ____ states that some people have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid
    it whenever. These people need to be controlled and coerced by their managers to achieve production. See Theory Y for the opposite.
    theory x
  206. _____ is a genetic affectation which influences the phenotype of an individual organism within a species or population but by definition that phenotype can also be modified by the environmental conditions. In
    the rest of the population, conditions cannot have that affect. Having some genetic factor(s) that may make an individual more likely to develop a particular condition than the general population.
    genetic predisposition
  207. ____ is the part of the unconscious mind that is derived from ancestral memory and experience and is common to all humankind, as distinct from the individual's unconscious
    collective unconscious
  208. _____ is a mental process (e.g., repression or projection) initiated, typically unconsciously, to avoid conscious conflict or anxiety
    defense mechanism
  209. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT:

    Freud felt that _____

    Adler felt that _____
    • Adler believed that the major factor affecting personality  development is the desire and ability to overcome feelings of inadequacy
    • deriving from early childhood experiences (or an inferiority complex).

    Freud believed that there are 5 stages in the formation of your personality:oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  210. _____ is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two or more cognitions: ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. The theory proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce this. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
    cognitive dissonance theory
  211. _____ is a social psychological and sociological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. idea that we choose mates we perceive as "equals", trying to choose mates by evaluating their youth, social status, creativity, intelligence, humor, kindness. a theoretical explanation for how group members interact based on perceived costs and rewards.
    social exchange theory
  212. ____ is a theory that supposes that one attempts to understand the behavior of
    others by attributing feelings, beliefs, and intentions to them
    attribution theory
  213. _____ is often used in to mean a guess, hunch or supposition
    theory
  214. ** Sun Tzu believed that ____
    accepting change is fundamental
  215. _____ refers to the body's need to reach and maintain a certain state of equilibrium. The term is often used to refer to the body's tendency to monitor and maintain internal states such as temperature and energy
    levels at fairly constant and stable levels.
    homeostasis
  216. ____ is the ongoing adaptive efforts of the body to maintain stability (homeostasis) in response to stressors.
    allostasis
  217. _____ is defined as the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response that results from repeated or chronic stress. It is used to explain how frequent activation of the body's stress response, essential for managing acute threats, can in fact damage the body in the long run. It is generally measured through a
    composite index of indicators of cumulative strain on several organs and tissues, but especially on the cardiovascular system.
    allostatic load
  218. _____ is a feeling of strain and pressure
    stress
  219. _____ is a technique used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud.
    The importance of this is that the patients speak for themselves, rather than repeating the ideas of the analyst; they work through their own material, rather than parroting others suggestions.
    free association
  220. *** whenever you see a graph it is usually MEDIAN

    *** whenever you see "most" it is MODE

    *** USUALLY whenever you see a drawn line or circle it is mean
  221. Educate for Formation in Faith

    Catholic Universities affirm an intricate relationship between reason and faith. As important as discursive and logical formulations and critical thinking are, they are not able to capture all that can be and ought to be learned. Intellectual rigor coupled with respectful humility provides a more profound preparation for both career and life. Intellectual rigor characterizes the pursuit of all that can be learned. Respectful humility reminds people of faith that they need to learn from those who are of other faiths and cultures, as well as from those who may have no religious faith at all.

    Provide an Excellent Education

    In the Marianist approach to education, “excellence” includes the whole person, not just the technician or rhetorician. Marianist universities educate whole persons, developing their physical, psychological, intellectual, moral, spiritual and social qualities. Faculty and students attend to fundamental moral attitudes, develop
    their personal talents and acquire skills that will help them learn all their lives. The Marianist approach to education links theory and practice, liberal and professional education. Our age has been deeply shaped by science and technology. Most recently, information and educational technologies have changed the way faculty and students research and teach. At Marianist Universities, two goals are pursued simultaneously: an appropriate use of information technology for learning, and the enhancement of interaction between students and teachers. As Catholic, Marianist Universities seek to embrace diverse peoples and understand diverse cultures, convinced that ultimately, when such people come together, one of the highest purposes of education is realized: a human community that respects every individual within it.

    Educate in Family Spirit

    Known for their strong sense of community, Marianists have traditionally spoken of this sense as “family spirit.” Marianist educational experience fosters the development of a community characterized by a sense of family spirit that accepts each person with loving respect, and draws everyone in the university into the challenge of community building. Family spirit also enables Marianist universities to challenge their students, faculty and staff to excellence and maturity, because the acceptance and love of a community gives its members the courage to risk failure and the joy of sharing success.

    Educate for Service, Justice, and Peace

    The Marianist approach to higher education is deeply committed to the common good. The intellectual life itself is undertaken as a form of service in the interest of justice and peace, and the university curriculum is designed to connect the classroom with the wider world. In addition, Marianist universities extend a special concern for the poor and marginalized and promote the dignity, rights and responsibilities of all people.

    Educate for Adaptation to Change

    In the midst of rapid social and technological change, Marianist universities readily adapt and change their methods and structures so
    that the wisdom of their educational philosophy and spirituality may be transmitted even more fully. “New times call for new methods,” Father Chaminade often repeated. The Marianist university faces the future confidently, on the one hand knowing that it draws on a rich educational philosophy, and on the other fully aware for that philosophy to remain vibrant in changing times, adaptations need to be made.
  222. ____ is the phenomenon that occurs in highly cohesive groups when the members ignore evidence and opinion contrary to their own views and disregard alternative choices in order to preserve their feeling of unity. this often leads to a faulty decision.
    group-think
  223. _____ is the phenomenon that allows native speakers to talk about matters that they have not discussed before and to understand talk they have never heard before. In relationships, the willingness of an individual to receive and consider ideas from another.
    openness

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