Neuro Exam 2.5 Part 1
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Neuro Exam 2.5 Part 1
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
review of neuro lecture 5 for exam 2
a collection of cell bodies outside the CNS
a collection of cell bodies w/in the CNS
Is the basal ganglia really a ganglia?
no, they are really nuclei
someone just named them wrong
The basal ganglia is a part of which vesicle of the brain?
Are the basal ganglia superficial or deep?
What separates the basal ganglia from the diencephalon?
posterior limb of internal capsule
What type of fibers does the posterior limb of the internal capsule contain?
What are the 3 major basal ganglia?
amygdaloid nuclear complex
What is the caudate nucleus?
elongated gray matter mass that follows the curvature of the lateral ventricle
The caudate nucleus lies medial to:
What type of structure is the caudate nucleus?
suprathalamic (above the thalamus)
What are the parts of the caudate nucleus?
Where is the head of the caudate nucleus?
lies rostral to thalamus
Where is the body of the caudate nucleus?
extends along dorsal lateral border of the thalamus
What is a structure found in the body of the caudate nucleus?
What does the stria terminalis do?
separates the body of the caudate nucleus from the thalamus
What type of structure is the stria terminalis?
connecting structure of limbic system
Where is the tail of the caudate nucleus?
descends and terminates w/ amygdaloid nuclear complex
Neurons of the caudate nucleus go into the:
What lobe is the amygdala in?
Where is the lenticular nucleus of the corpus striatum?
buried in semioval center
What is the lenticular nucleus surrounded by?
The lenticular nucleus is in close contact w/ what structure?
What does the internal capsule separate?
lenticular nucleus from thalamus
What is the size of the lenticular nucleus?
about the size of a walnut
How many parts is the lenticular nucleus divided into?
What are the two parts of the lenticular nucleus?
Which part of the lenticular nucleus is larger?
Which part of the lenticular nucleus is smaller?
Where is the putamen?
lies b/w external capsule and lateral medullary lamina
What is the lateral boundary of the globus pallidus?
lateral medullary lamina
Lateral medullary lamina:
thin band of white matter that separates putamen from globus pallidus
What is the medial boundary of the globus pallidus?
posterior limb of the internal capsule
What part of the lenticular nucleus is more lateral?
What part of the lenticular nucleus is smaller?
What is the oldest structure of the basal ganglia?
amygdaloid nuclear complex
--it is one of the first structures developed
Where is the amygdaloid nuclear complex?
internal to uncus
The uncus is part of:
What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex made up of?
What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex?
nuclear structure divided into subnuclear structures
The amygdaloid nuclear complex makes what type of connections?
afferent and efferent
The amygdaloid nuclear complex makes afferent and efferent connections w/:
Where are the olfactory regions?
What does the rhinencephalon deal w/?
What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex classified as?
Functionally, is the amygdaloid nuclear complex part of the extrapyramidal system?
What does the extrapyrimidal system deal with?
What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex involved w/?
limbic system and processes/stores memory
fear, rewards, addictions etc.
Is the claustrum of the basal ganglia small or large?
What type of matter is the claustrum?
What is the claustrum?
thin plate that lies between structures
What does the claustrum lie between?
lenticular nucleus and insular cortex
What is the lateral border of the claustrum?
What is the medial border of the claustrum?
is the claustrum involved w/ the extrapyrimidal system?
What is the claustrum involved with?
What is the only extrapyrimidal system of the basal ganglia?
The basal ganglia is the principal component of which system?
What is the extrapyrimidal system responsible for?
involuntary skeletal muscle contractions
What are the components of the extrapyrimidal system?
corpus striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus)
The subthalamus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
The substantia nigra is part of which vesicle of the brain?
The red nucleus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
What are the functions of the extrapyrimidal system?
inhibit involuntary movement that gets in way of desired voluntary movement
inhibits co-contraction of antagonistic mm of limbs
adjust body position appropriately for given task--involuntary (muscle memory)
subconscious reflexive system when responding to stimuli (don't have to think)
uses inhibitory process to carry out functions through the basal ganglia
works in contrast to pyramidal system (voluntary)
What disease is associated w/ extrapyramidal system?
Parkinson's: involuntary mm activity b/c corpus striatum is impaired due to a dopamine deficiency
Neurons leaving the basal ganglia do not project directly into SC, they project into:
structures w/in brainstem which indirectly influence SC
Basal ganglia indirectly influences sketal muscle:
injury will not cause paralysis b/c it is not direct
Basal ganglia is highly influential in what types of activity?
What are the categories of damage/dysfunction of basal ganglia that fall into 2 categories?
Disturbance of muscle tone
abnormal involuntary movement
Disturbance of muscle tone:
rigidity (hypertonicity) as w/ Parkinson's disease