Neuro Exam 2.5 Part 1

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brau2308
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202912
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Neuro Exam 2.5 Part 1
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2013-02-24 00:55:50
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro lecture 5 for exam 2
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  1. Ganglia:
    a collection of cell bodies outside the CNS
  2. Nucleus
    a collection of cell bodies w/in the CNS
  3. Is the basal ganglia really a ganglia?
    • no, they are really nuclei
    • someone just named them wrong
  4. The basal ganglia is a part of which vesicle of the brain?
    telencephalon
  5. Are the basal ganglia superficial or deep?
    deep
  6. What separates the basal ganglia from the diencephalon?
    posterior limb of internal capsule
  7. What type of fibers does the posterior limb of the internal capsule contain?
    projection fibers
  8. What are the 3 major basal ganglia?
    • corpus striatum
    • amygdaloid nuclear complex
    • claustrum
  9. What is the caudate nucleus?
    elongated gray matter mass that follows the curvature of the lateral ventricle
  10. The caudate nucleus lies medial to:
    putamen
  11. What type of structure is the caudate nucleus?
    suprathalamic (above the thalamus)
  12. What are the parts of the caudate nucleus?
    • head
    • body
    • tail
  13. Where is the head of the caudate nucleus?
    lies rostral to thalamus
  14. Where is the body of the caudate nucleus?
    extends along dorsal lateral border of the thalamus
  15. What is a structure found in the body of the caudate nucleus?
    stria terminalis
  16. What does the stria terminalis do?
    separates the body of the caudate nucleus from the thalamus
  17. What type of structure is the stria terminalis?
    • suprcelamic structure
    • connecting structure of limbic system
  18. Where is the tail of the caudate nucleus?
    descends and terminates w/ amygdaloid nuclear complex
  19. Neurons of the caudate nucleus go into the:
    amygdala
  20. What lobe is the amygdala in?
    temporal lobe
  21. Where is the lenticular nucleus of the corpus striatum?
    buried in semioval center
  22. What is the lenticular nucleus surrounded by?
    white matter
  23. The lenticular nucleus is in close contact w/ what structure?
    internal capsule
  24. What does the internal capsule separate?
    lenticular nucleus from thalamus
  25. What is the size of the lenticular nucleus?
    about the size of a walnut
  26. How many parts is the lenticular nucleus divided into?
    2
  27. What are the two parts of the lenticular nucleus?
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
  28. Which part of the lenticular nucleus is larger?
    putamen
  29. Which part of the lenticular nucleus is smaller?
    globus pallidus
  30. Where is the putamen?
    lies b/w external capsule and lateral medullary lamina
  31. What is the lateral boundary of the globus pallidus?
    lateral medullary lamina
  32. Lateral medullary lamina:
    thin band of white matter that separates putamen from globus pallidus
  33. What is the medial boundary of the globus pallidus?
    posterior limb of the internal capsule
  34. What part of the lenticular nucleus is more lateral?
    putamen
  35. What part of the lenticular nucleus is smaller?
    globus pallidus
  36. What is the oldest structure of the basal ganglia?
    • amygdaloid nuclear complex
    • --it is one of the first structures developed
  37. Where is the amygdaloid nuclear complex?
    • temporal lobe
    • internal to uncus
  38. The uncus is part of:
    parahippocampal gyrus
  39. What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex made up of?
    lesser nuclei
  40. What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex?
    nuclear structure divided into subnuclear structures
  41. The amygdaloid nuclear complex makes what type of connections?
    afferent and efferent
  42. The amygdaloid nuclear complex makes afferent and efferent connections w/:
    • hypothalamus
    • thalamus
    • olfactory regions
  43. Where are the olfactory regions?
    rhinencephalon
  44. What does the rhinencephalon deal w/?
    smell
  45. What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex classified as?
    basal ganglia
  46. Functionally, is the amygdaloid nuclear complex part of the extrapyramidal system?
    no
  47. What does the extrapyrimidal system deal with?
    motor functions
  48. What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex involved w/?
    • limbic system and processes/stores memory
    • fear, rewards, addictions etc.
  49. Is the claustrum of the basal ganglia small or large?
    small
  50. What type of matter is the claustrum?
    gray matter
  51. What is the claustrum?
    thin plate that lies between structures
  52. What does the claustrum lie between?
    lenticular nucleus and insular cortex
  53. What is the lateral border of the claustrum?
    extreme capsule
  54. What is the medial border of the claustrum?
    external capsule
  55. is the claustrum involved w/ the extrapyrimidal system?
    no
  56. What is the claustrum involved with?
    • memory
    • consciousness processing
  57. What is the only extrapyrimidal system of the basal ganglia?
    corpus striatum
  58. The basal ganglia is the principal component of which system?
    extraypyrimidal
  59. What is the extrapyrimidal system responsible for?
    involuntary skeletal muscle contractions
  60. What are the components of the extrapyrimidal system?
    • corpus striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus)
    • subthalamus
    • substantia nigra
    • red nucleus
  61. The subthalamus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
    diencephalon
  62. The substantia nigra is part of which vesicle of the brain?
    mesencephalon
  63. The red nucleus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
    mesencephalon
  64. What are the functions of the extrapyrimidal system?
    • inhibit involuntary movement that gets in way of desired voluntary movement
    • inhibits co-contraction of antagonistic mm of limbs
    • adjust body position appropriately for given task--involuntary (muscle memory)
    • subconscious reflexive system when responding to stimuli (don't have to think)
    • uses inhibitory process to carry out functions through the basal ganglia
    • works in contrast to pyramidal system (voluntary)
  65. What disease is associated w/ extrapyramidal system?
    Parkinson's: involuntary mm activity b/c corpus striatum is impaired due to a dopamine deficiency
  66. Neurons leaving the basal ganglia do not project directly into SC, they project into:
    structures w/in brainstem which indirectly influence SC
  67. Basal ganglia indirectly influences sketal muscle:
    injury will not cause paralysis b/c it is not direct
  68. Basal ganglia is highly influential in what types of activity?
    skeletal mm
  69. What are the categories of damage/dysfunction of basal ganglia that fall into 2 categories?
    • Dyskinesisas
    • Disturbance of muscle tone
  70. Dyskinesisas:
    abnormal involuntary movement
  71. Disturbance of muscle tone:
    rigidity (hypertonicity) as w/ Parkinson's disease

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