Neuro Exam 2.5 part 2

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Neuro Exam 2.5 part 2
2013-02-24 15:27:14
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy

review of neuro lecture 5 part 2 for exam 2
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  1. Rhinencephalon is part of which vesicle?
  2. What system is the rhinencephalon involved with?
    olfactory system (smell)
  3. Is the rhinencephalon an original structure of the brain?
  4. What is the main structure of the rhinencephalon?
    olfactory bulbs
  5. What CN are the olfactory bulbs a part of?
    CN 1 pairs
  6. What are the olfactory bulbs?
    outgrowth of the brain that lie on cribriform plate
  7. The the cribriform plate is part of which bone in the skull?
  8. The cribriform plate has what to allow nerves to pass through?
  9. The olfactory bulbs receive neurons from what?
    nasal mucosa
  10. What type of neurons are from the nasal mucosa?
    1st order sensory
  11. The 1st order sensory neurons from the nasal mucosa synapse with what?
    2nd order sensory neurons
  12. Where do 2nd order sensory neurons originate from?
    olfactory bulbs
  13. 2nd order sensory neurons (cell bodies in bulbs) travel through what?
    olfactory nerve
  14. The olfactory nerve enters the rhinencephalon and:
  15. The olfactory nerve bifurcates into:
    lateral olfactoray stria and medial olfactory stria
  16. Where does the lateral olfactory stria terminate?
    uncus of the parahippocampus
  17. What lobe is the uncus in?
    temporal lobe
  18. What is the parahippocampus?
    primary functional area--smell
  19. Where do the 2nd order neurons of the lateral olfactory stria go to?
    to uncus
  20. What do the medial olfactory stria head towards?
    anterior perforated substance (cortex)
  21. Some of the 2nd order neurons in the rhinencephalon may cross over to:
    contralateral side through anterior commissure to go to uncus or anterior perforated substance
  22. Smell info coming into the right nostril goes to:
    both lobes to be perceived
  23. Any general sensation or special senses has to reach what?
    cortex and goes through the thalamus first
  24. Does smell go through the thalamus before reaching the cortex?
    no, it is a survival evolution
  25. Why is smell unique?
    • it is the only sensation that is not first processed by the thalamus to before going to the cortex to be perceived
    • Goes DIRECTLY to cortex. Responds to danger quickly
  26. What system is the rhinencephalon involved with?
    • limbic system
    • smell ahs a lot to do with emotions, can make you happy, sad, sick
    • subtle smells can influence behavior
  27. Which vesicle of the brain is the diencephalon a part of?
  28. What does the diencephalon contain?
  29. Where are the thalami?
    in an area rostrol to brainstem
  30. What percentage of the brain is the diencephalon?
    • 2%
    • very small, but does a lot for you in terms of function
  31. Where is the diencephalon?
    between posterior commisure caudally to interventricular foramen rostrally
  32. What bounds the diencephalon laterally?
    • posterior limb of internal capsule
    • tail of caudate nucleus
    • stria terminalis
  33. What does the 3rd ventricle separate the diencephalon into?
    right and left halves, making it a bilateral structure
  34. What are the 4 parts of the diencephalon?
    • epithalamus
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • subthalamic region
  35. What is the most posterior aspect of the diencephalon?
  36. What are the parts of the epithalaums?
    • habenular trigone
    • pineal body
    • roof of 3rd ventricle
  37. What is the habenular trigone?
    triangle shaped nuclei that belong to epithalamus of the diencephalon
  38. What type of fibers does the habenular trigone have?
    afferent and efferent connections to other parts of the brain
  39. What other parts of the brain is the habenular trigone connected to?
    hypothalamus, thalamus, and basal ganglia
  40. The afferent and efferent connections in the habenular trigone are classified as:
  41. Where are connections w/in the habenular trigone found?
    in stria medullaris
  42. Stria medullaris:
    fibers connecting to hypothalamic, thalamic, afferent and efferent to basal ganglia; rostral to habenula
  43. What is the function of the habenular trigone?
    • not clear
    • plays minor role in limbic system
  44. The habenular trigone is a connecting structure that allows:
    4 parts of the brain to communicate
  45. Where is the pineal body?
    • attached to roof of 3rd ventricle
    • in region of posterior commissure
    • b/w two habenular trigones
  46. The pineal body plays a major role in:
    onset of puberty
  47. How does the pineal body play a major role in the onset of puberty?
    by producing melatonin
  48. What happens when the pineal body ceases to produce melatonin?
    triggers onset of specific relay nuclei
  49. what are the nuclei found in the pineal body?
    • specific relay nuclei
    • association nuclei
    • subcortical nuclei
    • diffuse cortical connection nuclei
    • pulvinar nuclei
  50. Specific relay nuclei:
    • r nuclei
    • project to and receive fibers (ascending tracts such as the spinothalamic tract and dorsal column) from well-defined cortical areas related to specific functions
  51. Association nuclei:
    • a nuclei
    • don't receive fibers from ascending systems, but project to association areas of the brain
  52. Subscortical nuclei
    • sc nuclei
    • project to subcortical area (i.e., basal ganglia, red nucleus)
  53. diffuse cortical connection nuclei:
    • dc nuclei
    • relay to various areas of the cortex but their destinations are not as specific as r nuclei
  54. Which nuclei in the pineal body are the largest?
    pulvinar nuclei
  55. When does the pineal body quit functioning?
    once puberty has been triggered and begins to calcify around age 40
  56. What is the pineal body involved with?
    • puberty
    • circadian rhythm--cyclic rhythm of body responses
    • clinical depression (melatonin in pineal body)
  57. What does melatonin deal with in some animals?
    • pigmentation of epidermis
    • NOT in humans though
  58. What lines the roof of the 3rd ventricle of the epithalamus?
    epithelial lining the roof is choroid plexus producing CSF
  59. What is the largest portion of the diencephalon?
  60. What is the ventral boundary of the thalamus?
    hypothalamic sulcus
  61. What is the caudal boundary of the thalamus?
    level of posterior commissure and cerebral aqueduct
  62. What is the rostral boundary of the thalamus?
    interventricular foramen
  63. What is the dorsal boundary of the thalamus?
    stria medullaris of epithalamus
  64. What is the lateral boundary of the thalamus?
    posterior limb of internal capsule
  65. What is the medial boundary of the thalamus?
    helps form lateral wall of 3rd ventricle
  66. What is the thalamus divided into?
    right and left halves
  67. What connects the right and left halves of the thalamus?
    massa intermedia
  68. What is another name for massa intermedia?
    interthalamic connection
  69. What does the massa intermedia cross?
    3rd ventricle
  70. The thalami appear as 2:
    obliquely placed oval masses
  71. The talami are internally composed of:
    numerous nuclei
  72. Describe the nomenclature of the nuclei of the thalamus?
    complex and inconsistent
  73. What are the two types of classification of the thalamus?
    • anatomical
    • functional
  74. What is the anatomical classification of the thalami based on?
    • location
    • (ventral nuclei, medial nuclei, ventral posterior lateral oralis, etc)
    • approximately 40 classifications
  75. What do functional classifications of thalamus describe?
    what specific nuclei do
  76. What are the types of functional classifications of the thalamus?
    • specific relay nuclei
    • association nuclei
    • subcortical nuclei
    • diffuse cortical connection nuclei
  77. specific relay nuclei:
    • r nuclie
    • project and receive fibers from well0defined cortical areas related to specific functions
    • receive from ascending tracts such as spinothalamic and dorsal column
  78. association nuclei
    • a nuclei
    • do not receive fibers from ascending systems but project to association areas of brain
  79. subcortical nuclei
    • sc nuclei
    • project to subcortical areas (basal ganglia, red nucleus, etc.)
  80. diffuse cortical connection nuclei
    • dc nuclei
    • relays to various areas of the cortex
    • destinations not as specific as R nuclei
  81. What are the most common nuclei?
    R and A nuclei
  82. What is the pulvinar nucleus?
    • anatomically, it belongs to the lateral nuclear group
    • functionally it is an R (relay) nucleus
  83. What is the largest nuclei?
    pulvinar nuclei
  84. What are the two smaller nuclei of the pulvinar nucleus?
    • medial geniculate body
    • lateral geniculate body
  85. Medial geniculate body:
    • R-type nucleus
    • involved w/ perception of hearing and auditory reflexes
  86. Lateral geniculate body:
    • R-type nucleus
    • involved w/ perception of vision and visual reflexes
  87. What are the functions of the thalamus?
    • great relay station of the brain
    • plays dominant role in maintenance and regulation of consciousness, alertness, and attention
    • involved w/ subcortical perception of pain and temperature
    • serve as integrative areas for motor function
  88. Is the thalamus purely a sensory structure?
    no, it used to be thought of that way
  89. Where is all sensory info (except olfaction) processed?
    nuclei of the thalamus
  90. What is included in the thalamus?
    internal and external stimuli
  91. Does the thalamus have secondary input back to the the olfactory cortex?
  92. What does the thalamus process?
    sensory info
  93. What does the thalamus send sensory info to?
    appropriate areas via projection fibers
  94. Thalamocortical fibers:
    corona radiata and internal capsule
  95. What is the primary sensory integrating structure of the brain?
  96. What allows you to discriminate where pain is coming from and what kind of pain it is?
    post-central gyrus
  97. Where is the actual appreciation of pain?