Med Term Ch 5

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Med Term Ch 5
2013-02-24 02:03:10
medical terminology chapter pulmonary cardiovascular

medical terminology chapter 5 pulmonary cardiovascular
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  1. angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
  2. aort/o
  3. arteri/o
  4. ather/o
    fatty / lipid paste
  5. atri/o
  6. cardo/o
  7. coron/o
    circle or crown
  8. my/o
  9. pector/o , steth/o
  10. sphygm/o
  11. thromb/o
  12. ven/o , phleb/o
  13. varic/o
    swollen, twisted vein
  14. ventricul/o
    ventricle ( belly or pouch )
  15. atrium
    upper right or left chamber of the heart
  16. endocardium
    membrane lining the cavities of the heart
  17. epicardium
    membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
  18. interatrial septum
    partition between the right and left atria
  19. interventricular septum
    partition between the right and left ventricles
  20. myocardium
    heart muscle tissue
  21. pericardium
    protective sac enclosing the heart, composed of two layers with fluid between
  22. visceral pericardium
    layer of pericardium that is closest to heart
  23. parietal pericardium
    outer layer of pericardium
  24. pericardial cavity
    fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
  25. ventricle
    lower right or left chambers of the heart
  26. heart valves
    structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
  27. aortic valve
    heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
  28. mitral valve
    bicuspid - heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  29. pulmonary semilunar valve
    heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  30. tricuspid valve
    valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  31. valves of the veins
    valves located at intervals within the lining of the veins, especially in the legs.  They constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
  32. arteries
    vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
  33. aorta
    large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system, branches from the left ventricle
  34. arterioles
    small vessels that join arterioles and venules
  35. venules
    small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
  36. veins
    vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
  37. systemic circulation
    circulation of blood throughout the body

    via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
  38. coronary circulation
    circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels

    to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
  39. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood form the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchgange of gases
  40. diastole
    to expand

    period during the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles, from the atria
  41. systole
    to contract

    period during the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
  42. normotension
    normal blood pressure
  43. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  44. hypertension (HTN)
    high blood pressure
  45. flow of electrical impulse through heart muscle
    • from sinoatrial (SA) node
    • |
    • to atrioventricular (AV) node
    • |
    • to bundle of His
    • |
    • to left and right bundle branches
    • |
    • to Purkinje fibers
  46. effect of electrical impulse on heart muscle cell
    • cell at resting state ( polarized )
    • to contraction state ( depolarized )
    • back to resting state by recharging ( repolarizing )
  47. sinoatrial SA node
    • pacemaker
    • highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the Right Atrium
    • responsible fo initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
  48. Atrioventricular AV node
    nuerological tissued in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from SA node to the bundle of His
  49. bundle of His
    neurological fibers extending from the AF node to the right and left branches that fire the impulse from the AF node to the Purkinje fibers
  50. Purkinje fibers
    fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
  51. polarization
    resting, resting state of myocardial cell
  52. depolarization
    • change of myocardial cell from a polarized / resting state to a state of contraction
    • de = not
    • polarization = resting
  53. repolarization
    recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
  54. normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
    • regular rhythm of the hear cycle stimulated by the SA node
    • average rate of 60 - 100 beats per minute
  55. aneurysm
    a widening  / a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery, caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
  56. saccular aneurysm
    a sac-like bulge on one side
  57. fusiform aneurysm
    a spindle shaped bulge
  58. dissecting aneurysm
    split or tear of the vessel wall
  59. angina pectoris
    • chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to the the heart muscle.
    • often caused by the narrowing of the coronary arteries
    • angina = "to choke"
  60. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification ( hardening ) of arterial walls
  61. atherosclerosis
    a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of the arteries
  62. atheromatous plaque
    a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat / lipids
  63. claudication
    • to limp
    • pain in a limb (especially calf) while walking, that subsides after rest
    • caused by inadequate blood supply
  64. constriction
    compression of a part that causes narrowing
  65. diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  66. embolus
    a clot (air, fat, foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs the flow of blood when in lodges
  67. heart murmur
    an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
  68. infarct
    • to stuff
    • a localized area of necrosis (dead tissue) caused by ischemia, resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
  69. ischemia
    • to hold back blood
    • decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
  70. perfusion deficit
    lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc
  71. occlusion
    plugging, an obstruction or closing off
  72. palpitation
    subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  73. stenosis
    condition of narrowing of a part
  74. thrombus
    stationary blood clot
  75. vegetation
    • to grow
    • an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of an infection
  76. acute coronary syndrome (ACS)