core 40 thang.txt

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core 40 thang.txt
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  1. Do isotopes have the same chemical properties as one another?
  2. Yes, they have the same number of electrons and bond the same exact way.
  3. What is the atomic number? What is the mass number? What gives you the
    number of neutrons?
  4. Atomic number = protons; Mass number = protons and neutrons; Mass
    number = atomic number- number of neutrons
  5. What are the stages in the scientific method?
  6. make observations 2. define the problem 3. make hypothesis 4. perform
    experiment 5. form theories
  7. What is a polar covalent bond?
  8. When atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons unequally to make an atom
  9. What is a hydrogen bond?
  10. A weak bond between the oppositely charged ends of a polar covalent
    molecule
  11. What is the molecular formula for glucose and fructose?
  12. C6 H12 06; they�re isomers.
  13. What organisms can digest cellulose?
  14. Bacteria and fungi
  15. What glucose polymer does your liver synthesize in order to control
    your blood glucose levels?
  16. Glycogen (process=homeostatis)
  17. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
  18. Saturated fats hold as many Hydrogens as possible. Unsaturated have
    one or more double bonds.
  19. What is a polypeptide?
  20. A chain of amino acids bonded together
  21. What makes one polypeptide different from another polypeptide?
  22. Number of amino acids and its sequence
  23. What are the products in the decomposition reaction of hydrogen
    peroxide?
  24. Water and oxygen gas
  25. Describe exothermic reactions.
  26. They release energy to the environment. They tend to be spontaneous.
    There is less energy in the bonds of the products than in the reactants.
  27. Describe endothermic reactions.
  28. They absorb energy from the environment. They tend to be non-
    • spontaneous. There is more energy in the bonds of the products than in
    • the reactants.
  29. Many chemical reactions that result in the production of an end
    product are called what?
  30. Biochemical pathway
  31. What type of transport requires the cell to expend energy? What type
    does not require it to do so?
  32. Active transport; passive transport
  33. What type of transport includes osmosis and dialysis?
  34. Passive transport
  35. What does hypotonic mean?
  36. Solution whose solute concentration is less than the cell (bursts)
  37. What does hypertonic mean?
  38. Solution whose solute concentration is greater than the cell (shrivels
    up)
  39. What is plasmolysis and what causes it?
  40. When a cell shrinks due to a loss of water through osmosis
  41. What is active transport?
  42. Channels (pumps) move molecules from low to high concentration
    (against gradient) must expend energy
  43. Why is carbon the element upon which all organic compounds and
    therefore, life is based?
  44. Because carbon can form 4 covalent bonds in 3 spatial dimensions
  45. What is the name given to the diffusion (with the gradient) of
    molecules through specific protein channels?
  46. Facilitated diffusion
  47. What is the general name given to the process in which a cell engulfs
    • solid particles or droplets of dissolved solutes and brings them
    • inside the cell?
  48. Endocytosis
  49. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing solid
    particles?
  50. Phagocytosis
  51. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing droplets
    of dissolved solutes?
  52. Pinocytosis
  53. Where does aerobic cellular respiration take place?
  54. Mitochondria
  55. What is found in animal cells but not in plant cells?
  56. Centrioles (and lysosomes)
  57. What is a microscopic network of membranous tubules that run
    • throughout the cytoplasm and are in contact with both the plasma
    • membrane and the nuclear membrane?
  58. Endoplasmic reticulum (ribosomes attached=rough, no ribosomes=smooth)
  59. Why is there a large amount of membranous organelles in the
    endoplasmic reticulum?
  60. It allows for more surface area for reactions to take place and it
    divides the cell into compartments
  61. Where are amino acids sequenced (protein synthesis)?
  62. Ribosomes
  63. What organelle repackages cell products and transports them to the
    • plasma membrane in vesicles, to be eventually secreted out of the cell
    • by exocytosis?
  64. Golgi complex
  65. Which is thought to be an accumulation of ribosomal RNA?
  66. The nucleolus
  67. Where is chromatin found?
  68. The nucleus
  69. What composes chromatin and what is contained inside of it?
  70. Composed of proteins called histones; contains DNA
  71. What are the contents of the nucleus collectively called?
  72. The nucleoplasm
  73. What organelle is a membrane vesicle that contains digestive enzymes and may rupture when a cell dies, releasing these enzymes?
    Lysosome
  74. What organelle stores oils, pigments and other materials?
    Plastids
  75. Where is the site of fat and carb synthesis inside of the cell?
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  76. What does the plasma membrane not composed of?
    Microscopic openings to the outside called pores
  77. What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    Prokaryotic do not have any membranous organelles
  78. What is a network of protein fibers that run throughout the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells and provide support and added strength to the cell?
    Cytoskeleton
  79. What method does bacteria use to reproduce?
    Binary fission
  80. Where does photosynthesis take place in eukaryotes?
    Chloroplasts
  81. What structure is composed of nine bundles of three microtubules?
    Centrioles
  82. Is the proto-eukaryotic host cell aerobic or anaerobic?
    Anaerobic
  83. Why evidence supports the theory that chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria-like organisms?
    Binary fission; two membranes, bacteria-like ribosomes, bacteria-like DNA
  84. What does the endosymbiont cell do?
    It uses 02 to break down pyruvic acids to make ATPS (aerobic respiration)
  85. What is the relationship between the endosymbiont and the host?
    Mutualism
  86. How many net ATP�s does the cell make in the anaerobic respiration of glucose?
    2
  87. What is the total number of ATP�s produced from the processing of one glucose molecule during aerobic cellular respiration?
    36
  88. Where does the glycolysis reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur?
    Cytoplasm
  89. What is a pathway part of both types of cellular respiration?
    Glycolysis
  90. What is the final energy storage in the Krebs cycle?
    ATP
  91. What are two intermediate energy storages in the Krebs cycle?
    FADH2 and NADH
  92. What are two waste products of the Krebs cycle?
    Water and carbon dioxide
  93. What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of oxidative cellular respiration?
    Oxygen
  94. In yeast anaerobic respiration, what is the name of the process following glycolysis?
    Alcoholic fermentation
  95. In animal cell anaerobic respiration, what is the name of the process following glycolysis?
    Lactic acid fermentation
  96. What are the waste products of yeast anaerobic respiration?
    Ethanol and carbon dioxide
  97. Why is anaerobic respiration not very efficient?
    Most of the energy is put into the waste product
  98. What is the purpose of the dark phase reactions in photosynthesis?
    To synthesize PGAL from ATP�s NADPH�s and CO2.
  99. In the light phase of photosynthesis, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and transferred to what two energy storage molecules?
    NADPH�s and ATPs
  100. What phase is Carbon Dioxide fixed into (photosynthesis)?
    Dark phase (calvin cycle)
  101. When is ADP turned into ATP in photosynthesis?
    Light phase
  102. If a plant is exposed to radioactive carbon, where on the plant or product can you find radioactive material?
    PGALs will be radioactive, and everything will be radioactive.
  103. What are a stack of thylakoids called?
    Granum
  104. What does chlorophyll a best absorb?
    Violet and red
  105. What does an accessory (antenna) pigment do?
    Absorb other wavelengths, the rest of ROYGBIV
  106. Which nitrogen bases are purines?
    Adenine and guanine
  107. Which nitogren bases are pyrimidines?
    Thymine, cytosine, and uracil
  108. What is transcription?
    Converting DNA to mRNA
  109. What is translation?
    Converting mRNA to amino acid sequence
  110. What is a mutation?
    A mistake in the DNA nucleotide sequence
  111. What is a codon?
    mRNA triplet code
  112. What is an anti-codon?
    TRNA complementary triplet code
  113. How does mature mRNA differ from primary mRNA transcript?
    Mature mRNA is edited (contains no introns)
  114. How is transcription different from that in eukaryotes?
    Prokaryotes cannot edit
  115. What is the function of tRNA?
    Carries a particular amino acid to a particular mRNA codon
  116. In the translation process, what amino acid do all poplypeptide chains start with?
    Methianine
  117. In a eukaryotic cell, where does the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA occur?
  118. Where does translation occur?
    In the cytoplasm, on a ribosome
  119. What is a point mutation?
    A substitution
  120. What are the types of mutations?
    Insertion, substitution, deletion
  121. What are the steps n the Lytic Cycle?
    1. virus inserts its DNA into bacterium 2. DNA of virus and bacterium are spliced together 3) makes viruses 4) bacteria lyses, viruses spew
  122. How is sickle cell hemoglobin different from normal hemoglobin?
    ONE mutation out of 500 amino acids is different
  123. In order for a mutation to affect ones offspring, where must the mutation occur?
    In the DNA of the gametes during meiosis
  124. Can there be more than one DNA triplet code for a particular amino acid?
    Yes, there are synonyms.
  125. What is reverse transcription?
    Converting RNA to DNA (retrovirus, HIV)
  126. What is cDNA?
    Complementary DNA made off of the RNA template
  127. In which period of the cell�s life cycle does the chromatin replicate?
    Interphase [s period]
  128. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the nuclear membrane disintegrate?
    Prophase [mitosis]
  129. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the nucleoli disappear?
    Prophase
  130. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the spindle first appear?
    Prophase
  131. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the replicated chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell?
    Metaphase
  132. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does a cell plate form between two replicated nuclei?
    Mitosis [telophase]
  133. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the centrioles reappear?
    Telophase
  134. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the chromatids separate and the resultant individual chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell?
    Anaphase
  135. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the nucleoli reappear?
    telophase
  136. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle are chromosomes not visible under a light microscope?
    Interphase
  137. In what stage of the meosis do the replicated homologous chromosome partners line up, side by side, at the equator of the cell?
    Metaphase I
  138. In what stage of meiosis do the DS chromosomes split at their centromeres and the single stranded chromosomes move to opposite sides?
    Anaphase II
  139. In which division of meiosis, does independent assortment occur?
    The 1st division
  140. What is synapsis?
    DD partners connect in Prophase I
  141. What is the name for the cell division process in which cells having the diploid chromosome number form cells having the haploid chromosome number?
    Meiosis
  142. What is the name for the cell division process that is responsible for growth and repair in organisms?
  143. Which sex gamete formation has two unequal cell divisions?
    Female
  144. In what gamete is their the formation of a polar body?
    Female
  145. What is crossing over?
    Chromosomes exchange segments during synapsis
  146. What are tetrads?
    homologous DS partners
  147. What are the 3 sources of genetic variation in meiosis?
    1) mutation 2) crossover 3) independent assortment
  148. Where on the chromosomes must a cross-over occur that separates linked genes enabling them to form new gene combinations?
    Between the linked genes
  149. What is the relationship between the crossing-over frequency and the distance apart two linked genes are located on the chromosome?
    Closer together, lower frequency
  150. What is the number of chromsome combinations possible in any human zygote?
    2^46
  151. Do chromosomes always assort independently in meiosis?
    Yes
  152. Do genes always assort independent in meiosis?
    No, only if on separate chromosomes, not on linked genes
  153. What is the parent cell chromosome number in mitosis? The daughter cell?
    46 chromosomes, 46 chromosomes. Mitosis makes an exact copy.
  154. What is the structure formed during cytokinesis in plant cells?
    Cell plate to form the cell wall later
  155. What are the steps of mitosis in order?
    Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  156. When does the replication of DNA occur during the cell cycle?
    S Period of Interphase
  157. In what stage do the chromosomes line up in the middle?
    Metaphase
  158. In what stage do the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear?
    Prophase
  159. In what stage do the nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear?
    Telophase
  160. In what stage do the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell?
    Anaphase
  161. What is diploid and haploid?
    Diplod=homologous partners; Haploid=not homologous partners
  162. In which part of meiosis does the chromosome number reduce?
    1st division; 46 chromosomes-->46 DS chromosomes-->23 pairs-->23 DS chromosomes
  163. What causes genetic variation in organisms that reproduce asexually?
    Mutation
  164. What is the difference between a body (somatic) cell and a gamete?
    Body= diploid cell; Gamete= haploid cell
  165. What is a nondisjunction?
    Chromosomes fail to separate in 1st division of meiosis; leaving 2 or 0 chromosomes when it needs only 1.
  166. When does cytokinesis in animals begin?
    Anaphase
  167. Define a phenotype and give an example.
    A physical expression of a trait. Allele combos determine it.
  168. Define genotype and give an example.
    A genetic expression of a trait
  169. How is probability figured for a single event? For multiple events?
    Independent chance events don�t affect each other. Independent event x Independent event x Independent event x.. =total probability
  170. What is a dominant trait?
    Allele that will always be expressed if present.
  171. What is a recessive trait?
    Allele that will only be expressed if dominant is absent.
  172. How are results expressed if a trait is codominant?
    Equally (roan)
  173. How are results expressed if the trait is governed by incomplete dominance?
    Outcome is a blend of 2 expressions (pink)
  174. What is an X-linked trait?
    Any gene on the X chromosome
  175. How is a sex linked trait inherited? Who is most likely to be affected and why?
    On the X chromosome/ Boys only have 1 X chromosome
  176. How are sex chromosomes inherited for males?
    X from mom; Y from dad (who determines the sex of the child)
  177. How are sex chromosomes inherited for females?
    X from mom; X from dad
  178. What is polygenic inheritance?
    Many pairs of alleles are responsible for the expression of a trait
  179. What is the cause of Down�s syndrome?
    Nondisjunction on chromosome 21
  180. What type of genetic disorder is cystic fibrosis?
    Autosomal recessive
  181. What are some traits of DNA?
    Double stranded, antiparallel, complementary, double helix
  182. What composes a nucleotide?
    5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
  183. What makes up the DNA code?
    A sequence of triplet codes
  184. What does DNA code for?
    Amino acid sequences
  185. Why does rapid evolution occur after mass extinctions?
    Unoccupied niches are filled quickly after cataclysmic events
  186. What is an adaptation?
    An inherited trait that gives the organism a survival advantage
  187. What is another word for parallel adaptation?
    Convergent evolution
  188. What is adaptive radiation?
    Many different divergences from one common ancestor
  189. What is punctuated equilibrium?
    Long periods of equilibrium followed by evidence of relatively rapid change
  190. What does Industrial Melanism refer to?
    Moths in London, natural selection
  191. What is taxonomy?
    The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
  192. What is a biological species?
    A group of organisms that interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring
  193. List the hierarchies of classification in order.
    Domain-->kingdom-->phylum-->class-->order-->family-->genus-->species
  194. What are the parts composing the scientific name?
    1st part is the genus. 2nd part is the phylum.
  195. Which kingdoms are made of prokaryotes?
    Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
  196. What are hybrid animals?
    Individuals of different species interbreed and produce offspring?
  197. Define a food chain.
    A path of energy through trophic levels of an ecosystem
  198. What is an ecological niche?
    The way in which an organism makes a living in its particular habit
  199. What level of consumer is an herbivore?
    2nd order consumer
  200. Define succession.
    A somewhat regular progression of species replacement
  201. Where does transcription take place?
    In the nucleus
  202. What is the function of mRNA?
    Carries instructions for making proteins and delivers it to translation
  203. What is the function of tRNA?
    Carries a particular amino acid to a particular ribosome
  204. What is an exon? Intron?
    Introns are removed. Exons remain after editing.
  205. What was Oparin and Haldane�s hypothesis about the formation of organic molecules?
    Available energy sources would have caused the gases of the earth�s early atmosphere to react with each other to form complex organic molecules from which 1st life could have formed
  206. What scientists conducted an experiment to test Oparin and Haldane�s hypothesis?
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
  207. What provided the first oxygen to the early earth�s atmosphere?
    Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria
  208. What was made possible by the ozone layer?
    Made earth�s land a safe place to live
  209. What does the theory of endosymbiosis refer to?
    Evolution of the eukaryotic cell
  210. What is a protocell?
    A bubble (microsphere) that has organic compounds in it
  211. What is speciation?
    The result of divergent evolution
  212. What are some scientific reasons that support evolution?
    Structural/molecular homologies=common ancestry
  213. What is recycled in ecosystems? What is not?
    Nitrogen, water, and Carbon are recycled. Energy is not.
  214. What is lichen?
    Fungus and algae living in a mutualistic relationship
  215. What are trophic levels?
    Levels of consumers
  216. What is biodegradable material?
    material that can be broken down

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