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  1. a measure of how many species are in an area
  2. why maintain biodiversity?
    ecosystem services
  3. How does ecosystem services that help maintain biodiversity?
    to purify our air and water (phytoplankton)

    to reduce floods (vegetation)

    to generate fertile soil

    to pollinate

    to cycle nutrients

    to protect from erosion

    to control agricultural pests
  4. Why do we need species?
    economic goods!

    sources of medicines!

    provide us with recreation!

    ecotourism =giving $$ to a country to view their environment

    contain genetic info that tells the story of earth!
  5. # of species?
    • 1.3 million catalogued 
    • ~8.7 +/- 1.3 million
    • undiscovered: insects fungi, bacteria
  6. species that have few individuals and is near becoming endangered
    threatened species
  7. examples of threatened species
    Gelada &

    • Northern Spotted Owl (threatened species)
    • Habitat loss in Canada & No. US
    • Need old growth forest, top predators and are specialists 
  8. species that can only thrive in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited die
  9. species that have fewer individuals
    at risk of becoming extinct
    endangered species
  10. examples of endangered species
    white abalone

    barred bandicoot
  11. scavenger birds; eats dead carcasses

    2005 = 273 individuals

    endangered= low birth rates, late sexual maturity, poaching, lead poisoning, DDT and power lines
    Case Study: California Condor
  12. Intrinsic characteristics of Extinct Species
    extremely localized/ require LARGE territory

    low birth rates

    island species/ extreme specialists

    low adaptability

    late sexual maturity
  13. species no longer exists on earth
    extinct species
  14. examples of extinct species
    Dodo birth, Tecopa Pupfish

    • Yangtze River Dolphin aka Bajii (last sighting in 2004)
    • causes: heavy transportation on river, overfishing of their food, dams, collision with boats, H20 pollution
  15. 200 years ago -> 3 ~ 5 billion

    was the world's most abundant bird

    1 flock =10 mi wide, 100 mi long

    they were killed for its meat

    Martha died in 1914
    Case Study: Passenger Pigeon
  16. 3 - 30 species die/ year caused by natural selection
    background extinction
  17. 1000's species die/year

    caused by dramatic environmental change

    5-6 so far

    human causing 6th? (previous mass extinction
    mass extinction
  18. Root causes of extinction?
    too many people!

    weak/ no laws

    high consumption rates
  19. humans causes extinction
    habitat loss/habitat fragmentation



    capture & sale of exotics (2.5 million birds caught illegally/yr 1 bird = 10 deaths in transits)

    introduction of non-native species (species that does not belong in area)

    global warming
  20. example of introduction of non-native species
    cane toad

    zebra mussels

    ice plant @ beach
  21. how does non-native species cause problems with native species?
    can usually out-compete natives

    eat some food resources as native

    no natural predators in new area

    reproduce with no limits on growth
Card Set:
2013-02-24 18:41:12

animals stuff~
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