core 40 fixed.txt

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karennnb
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20299
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core 40 fixed.txt
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2010-05-22 12:50:43
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biologia
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core 40 review
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  1. Do isotopes have the same chemical properties as one another?
    Yes, they have the same number of electrons and bond the same exact way.
  2. What is the atomic number? What is the mass number? What gives you the
    number of neutrons?
  3. Atomic number = protons; Mass number = protons and neutrons; Mass
    number = atomic number- number of neutrons
  4. What are the stages in the scientific method?
    • make observations 2. define the problem 3. make hypothesis 4. perform
    • experiment 5. form theories
  5. What is a polar covalent bond?
    When atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons unequally to make an atom
  6. What is a hydrogen bond?
    • A weak bond between the oppositely charged ends of a polar covalent
    • molecule
  7. What is the molecular formula for glucose and fructose?
    C6 H12 06; they�re isomers.
  8. What organisms can digest cellulose?
    Bacteria and fungi
  9. What glucose polymer does your liver synthesize in order to control
    • your blood glucose levels?
    • Glycogen (process=homeostatis)
  10. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
    • Saturated fats hold as many Hydrogens as possible. Unsaturated have
    • one or more double bonds.
  11. What is a polypeptide?
    A chain of amino acids bonded together
  12. What makes one polypeptide different from another polypeptide?
    Number of amino acids and its sequence
  13. What are the products in the decomposition reaction of hydrogen
    • peroxide?
    • Water and oxygen gas
  14. Describe exothermic reactions.
    • They release energy to the environment. They tend to be spontaneous.
    • There is less energy in the bonds of the products than in the reactants.
  15. Describe endothermic reactions.
    • They absorb energy from the environment. They tend to be non-
    • spontaneous. There is more energy in the bonds of the products than in
    • the reactants.
  16. Many chemical reactions that result in the production of an end
    • product are called what?
    • Biochemical pathway
  17. What type of transport requires the cell to expend energy? What type
    • does not require it to do so?
    • Active transport; passive transport
  18. What type of transport includes osmosis and dialysis?
    Passive transport
  19. What does hypotonic mean?
    Solution whose solute concentration is less than the cell (bursts)
  20. What does hypertonic mean?
    • Solution whose solute concentration is greater than the cell (shrivels
    • up)
  21. What is plasmolysis and what causes it?
    When a cell shrinks due to a loss of water through osmosis
  22. What is active transport?
    • Channels (pumps) move molecules from low to high concentration
    • (against gradient) must expend energy
  23. Why is carbon the element upon which all organic compounds and
    • therefore, life is based?
    • Because carbon can form 4 covalent bonds in 3 spatial dimensions
  24. What is the name given to the diffusion (with the gradient) of
    • molecules through specific protein channels?
    • Facilitated diffusion
  25. What is the general name given to the process in which a cell engulfs
    • solid particles or droplets of dissolved solutes and brings them
    • inside the cell?
    • Endocytosis
  26. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing solid
    • particles?
    • Phagocytosis
  27. What is the specific name for the process of a cell engulfing droplets
    • of dissolved solutes?
    • Pinocytosis
  28. Where does aerobic cellular respiration take place?
    Mitochondria
  29. What is found in animal cells but not in plant cells?
    Centrioles (and lysosomes)
  30. What is a microscopic network of membranous tubules that run
    • throughout the cytoplasm and are in contact with both the plasma
    • membrane and the nuclear membrane?
    • Endoplasmic reticulum (ribosomes attached=rough, no ribosomes=smooth)
  31. Why is there a large amount of membranous organelles in the
    endoplasmic reticulum? It allows for more surface area for reactions to take place and it divides the cell into compartments
  32. Where are amino acids sequenced (protein synthesis)?
    Ribosomes
  33. What organelle repackages cell products and transports them to the
    • plasma membrane in vesicles, to be eventually secreted out of the cell
    • by exocytosis?
    • Golgi complex
  34. Which is thought to be an accumulation of ribosomal RNA?
    The nucleolus
  35. Where is chromatin found?
    The nucleus
  36. What composes chromatin and what is contained inside of it?
    Composed of proteins called histones; contains DNA
  37. What are the contents of the nucleus collectively called?
    The nucleoplasm
  38. What organelle is a membrane vesicle that contains digestive enzymes and may rupture when a cell dies, releasing these enzymes?
    Lysosome
  39. What organelle stores oils, pigments and other materials?
    Plastids
  40. Where is the site of fat and carb synthesis inside of the cell?
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  41. What does the plasma membrane not composed of?
    Microscopic openings to the outside called pores
  42. What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    Prokaryotic do not have any membranous organelles
  43. What is a network of protein fibers that run throughout the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells and provide support and added strength to the cell?
    Cytoskeleton
  44. What method does bacteria use to reproduce?
    Binary fission
  45. Where does photosynthesis take place in eukaryotes?
    Chloroplasts
  46. What structure is composed of nine bundles of three microtubules?
    Centrioles
  47. Is the proto-eukaryotic host cell aerobic or anaerobic?
    Anaerobic
  48. Why evidence supports the theory that chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria-like organisms?
    Binary fission; two membranes, bacteria-like ribosomes, bacteria-like DNA
  49. What does the endosymbiont cell do?
    It uses 02 to break down pyruvic acids to make ATPS (aerobic respiration)
  50. What is the relationship between the endosymbiont and the host?
    Mutualism
  51. How many net ATP�s does the cell make in the anaerobic respiration of glucose?
    2
  52. What is the total number of ATP�s produced from the processing of one glucose molecule during aerobic cellular respiration?
    36
  53. Where does the glycolysis reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur?
    Cytoplasm
  54. What is a pathway part of both types of cellular respiration?
    Glycolysis
  55. What is the final energy storage in the Krebs cycle?
    ATP
  56. What are two intermediate energy storages in the Krebs cycle?
    FADH2 and NADH
  57. What are two waste products of the Krebs cycle?
    Water and carbon dioxide
  58. What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of oxidative cellular respiration?
    Oxygen
  59. In yeast anaerobic respiration, what is the name of the process following glycolysis?
    Alcoholic fermentation
  60. In animal cell anaerobic respiration, what is the name of the process following glycolysis?
    Lactic acid fermentation
  61. What are the waste products of yeast anaerobic respiration?
    Ethanol and carbon dioxide
  62. Why is anaerobic respiration not very efficient?
    Most of the energy is put into the waste product
  63. What is the purpose of the dark phase reactions in photosynthesis?
    To synthesize PGAL from ATP�s NADPH�s and CO2.
  64. In the light phase of photosynthesis, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and transferred to what two energy storage molecules?
    NADPH�s and ATPs
  65. What phase is Carbon Dioxide fixed into (photosynthesis)?
    Dark phase (calvin cycle)
  66. When is ADP turned into ATP in photosynthesis?
    Light phase
  67. If a plant is exposed to radioactive carbon, where on the plant or product can you find radioactive material?
    PGALs will be radioactive, and everything will be radioactive.
  68. What are a stack of thylakoids called?
    Granum
  69. What does chlorophyll a best absorb?
    Violet and red
  70. What does an accessory (antenna) pigment do?
    Absorb other wavelengths, the rest of ROYGBIV
  71. Which nitrogen bases are purines?
    Adenine and guanine
  72. Which nitogren bases are pyrimidines?
    Thymine, cytosine, and uracil
  73. What is transcription?
    Converting DNA to mRNA
  74. What is translation?
    Converting mRNA to amino acid sequence
  75. What is a mutation?
    A mistake in the DNA nucleotide sequence
  76. What is a codon?
    mRNA triplet code
  77. What is an anti-codon?
    TRNA complementary triplet code
  78. How does mature mRNA differ from primary mRNA transcript?
    Mature mRNA is edited (contains no introns)
  79. How is transcription different from that in eukaryotes?
    Prokaryotes cannot edit
  80. What is the function of tRNA?
    Carries a particular amino acid to a particular mRNA codon
  81. In the translation process, what amino acid do all poplypeptide chains start with?
    Methianine
  82. In a eukaryotic cell, where does the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA occur?
  83. Where does translation occur?
    In the cytoplasm, on a ribosome
  84. What is a point mutation?
    A substitution
  85. What are the types of mutations?
    Insertion, substitution, deletion
  86. What are the steps n the Lytic Cycle?
    virus inserts its DNA into bacterium 2. DNA of virus and bacterium are spliced together 3) makes viruses 4) bacteria lyses, viruses spew
  87. How is sickle cell hemoglobin different from normal hemoglobin?
    ONE mutation out of 500 amino acids is different
  88. In order for a mutation to affect ones offspring, where must the mutation occur?
    In the DNA of the gametes during meiosis
  89. Can there be more than one DNA triplet code for a particular amino acid?
    Yes, there are synonyms.
  90. What is reverse transcription?
    Converting RNA to DNA (retrovirus, HIV)
  91. What is cDNA?
    Complementary DNA made off of the RNA template
  92. In which period of the cell�s life cycle does the chromatin replicate?
    Interphase [s period]
  93. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the nuclear membrane disintegrate?
    Prophase [mitosis]
  94. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the nucleoli disappear?
    Prophase
  95. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the spindle first appear?
    Prophase
  96. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the replicated chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell?
    Metaphase
  97. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does a cell plate form between two replicated nuclei?
    Mitosis [telophase]
  98. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the centrioles reappear?
    Telophase
  99. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle does the chromatids separate and the resultant individual chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell?
    Anaphase
  100. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle do the nucleoli reappear?
    telophase
  101. In what stage of the cell�s life cycle are chromosomes not visible under a light microscope?
    Interphase
  102. In what stage of the meosis do the replicated homologous chromosome partners line up, side by side, at the equator of the cell?
    Metaphase I
  103. In what stage of meiosis do the DS chromosomes split at their centromeres and the single stranded chromosomes move to opposite sides?
    Anaphase II
  104. In which division of meiosis, does independent assortment occur?
    The 1st division
  105. What is synapsis?
    DD partners connect in Prophase I
  106. What is the name for the cell division process in which cells having the diploid chromosome number form cells having the haploid chromosome number?
    Meiosis
  107. What is the name for the cell division process that is responsible for growth and repair in organisms?
  108. Which sex gamete formation has two unequal cell divisions?
    Female
  109. In what gamete is their the formation of a polar body?
    Female
  110. What is crossing over?
    Chromosomes exchange segments during synapsis
  111. What are tetrads?
    homologous DS partners
  112. What are the 3 sources of genetic variation in meiosis?
    1) mutation 2) crossover 3) independent assortment
  113. Where on the chromosomes must a cross-over occur that separates linked genes enabling them to form new gene combinations?
    Between the linked genes
  114. What is the relationship between the crossing-over frequency and the distance apart two linked genes are located on the chromosome?
    Closer together, lower frequency
  115. What is the number of chromsome combinations possible in any human zygote?
    2^46
  116. Do chromosomes always assort independently in meiosis?
    Yes
  117. Do genes always assort independent in meiosis?
    No, only if on separate chromosomes, not on linked genes
  118. What is the parent cell chromosome number in mitosis? The daughter cell?
    46 chromosomes, 46 chromosomes. Mitosis makes an exact copy.
  119. What is the structure formed during cytokinesis in plant cells?
    Cell plate to form the cell wall later
  120. What are the steps of mitosis in order?
    Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  121. When does the replication of DNA occur during the cell cycle?
    S Period of Interphase
  122. In what stage do the chromosomes line up in the middle?
    Metaphase
  123. In what stage do the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear?
    Prophase
  124. In what stage do the nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear?
    Telophase
  125. In what stage do the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell?
    Anaphase
  126. What is diploid and haploid?
    Diplod=homologous partners; Haploid=not homologous partners
  127. In which part of meiosis does the chromosome number reduce?
    1st division; 46 chromosomes-->46 DS chromosomes-->23 pairs-->23 DS chromosomes
  128. What causes genetic variation in organisms that reproduce asexually?
    Mutation
  129. What is the difference between a body (somatic) cell and a gamete?
    Body= diploid cell; Gamete= haploid cell
  130. What is a nondisjunction?
    Chromosomes fail to separate in 1st division of meiosis; leaving 2 or 0 chromosomes when it needs only 1.
  131. When does cytokinesis in animals begin?
    Anaphase
  132. Define a phenotype and give an example.
    A physical expression of a trait. Allele combos determine it.
  133. Define genotype and give an example.
    A genetic expression of a trait
  134. How is probability figured for a single event? For multiple events?
    Independent chance events don�t affect each other. Independent event x Independent event x Independent event x.. =total probability
  135. What is a dominant trait?
    Allele that will always be expressed if present.
  136. What is a recessive trait?
    Allele that will only be expressed if dominant is absent.
  137. How are results expressed if a trait is codominant?
    Equally (roan)
  138. How are results expressed if the trait is governed by incomplete dominance?
    Outcome is a blend of 2 expressions (pink)
  139. What is an X-linked trait?
    Any gene on the X chromosome
  140. How is a sex linked trait inherited? Who is most likely to be affected and why?
    On the X chromosome/ Boys only have 1 X chromosome
  141. How are sex chromosomes inherited for males?
    X from mom; Y from dad (who determines the sex of the child)
  142. How are sex chromosomes inherited for females?
    X from mom; X from dad
  143. What is polygenic inheritance?
    Many pairs of alleles are responsible for the expression of a trait
  144. What is the cause of Down�s syndrome?
    Nondisjunction on chromosome 21
  145. What type of genetic disorder is cystic fibrosis?
    Autosomal recessive
  146. What are some traits of DNA?
    Double stranded, antiparallel, complementary, double helix
  147. What composes a nucleotide?
    5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
  148. What makes up the DNA code?
    A sequence of triplet codes
  149. What does DNA code for?
    Amino acid sequences
  150. Why does rapid evolution occur after mass extinctions?
    Unoccupied niches are filled quickly after cataclysmic events
  151. What is an adaptation?
    An inherited trait that gives the organism a survival advantage
  152. What is another word for parallel adaptation?
    Convergent evolution
  153. What is adaptive radiation?
    Many different divergences from one common ancestor
  154. What is punctuated equilibrium?
    Long periods of equilibrium followed by evidence of relatively rapid change
  155. What does Industrial Melanism refer to?
    Moths in London, natural selection
  156. What is taxonomy?
    The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
  157. What is a biological species?
    A group of organisms that interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring
  158. List the hierarchies of classification in order.
    Domain-->kingdom-->phylum-->class-->order-->family-->genus-->species
  159. What are the parts composing the scientific name?
    1st part is the genus. 2nd part is the phylum.
  160. Which kingdoms are made of prokaryotes?
    Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
  161. What are hybrid animals?
    Individuals of different species interbreed and produce offspring?
  162. Define a food chain.
    A path of energy through trophic levels of an ecosystem
  163. What is an ecological niche?
    The way in which an organism makes a living in its particular habit
  164. What level of consumer is an herbivore?
    2nd order consumer
  165. Define succession.
    A somewhat regular progression of species replacement
  166. Where does transcription take place?
    In the nucleus
  167. What is the function of mRNA?
    Carries instructions for making proteins and delivers it to translation
  168. What is the function of tRNA?
    Carries a particular amino acid to a particular ribosome
  169. What is an exon? Intron?
    Introns are removed. Exons remain after editing.
  170. What was Oparin and Haldane�s hypothesis about the formation of organic molecules?
    Available energy sources would have caused the gases of the earth�s early atmosphere to react with each other to form complex organic molecules from which 1st life could have formed
  171. What scientists conducted an experiment to test Oparin and Haldane�s hypothesis?
    Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
  172. What provided the first oxygen to the early earth�s atmosphere?
    Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria
  173. What was made possible by the ozone layer?
    Made earth�s land a safe place to live
  174. What does the theory of endosymbiosis refer to?
    Evolution of the eukaryotic cell
  175. What is a protocell?
    A bubble (microsphere) that has organic compounds in it
  176. What is speciation?
    The result of divergent evolution
  177. What are some scientific reasons that support evolution?
    Structural/molecular homologies=common ancestry
  178. What is recycled in ecosystems? What is not?
    Nitrogen, water, and Carbon are recycled. Energy is not.
  179. What is lichen?
    Fungus and algae living in a mutualistic relationship
  180. What are trophic levels?
    Levels of consumers
  181. What is biodegradable material?
    material that can be broken down

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