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What is CA’s water dilemma?
- 1. Water location?
- moutains - sierra / norcal
- 2. Who needs the water?
- agriculture - central valley *most demand
- industry - socal LA and SD
- population - socal La and SD
- 3. Who cares?
- know the source and filtration system
- 1. DWP - Department of Water and Power
- >Los Angeles Aqueduct, 5 years to build, 330 miles long, water from surface streams (Owens Lake > LA *dried up) > pull from Mono Lake (1994) > water returned to Owens River (2007)
- 2. MWD - Metropolitan Water District
- > Colorado Aqueduct (1941), Colorado River / Parker Dam aka Lake Havasu, 242 miles long / 1600 ft of lift, service LA OC and SD county
- SWP - State Water Project
- > California Aqueduct
- > 400 miles long
- > from the Delta (Stockton) to Castaic Lake
- CVWP - Central Valley Water Project
- > Friant-Kern Canal
- > Choachella Canal
- > All American Canal
- *purpose was to support agriculture
Know 5 environmental issues surrounding CA’s water. (DCE - dont come early RRR)
- 1. Drought (use ground water and rain water)
- 2. Contamination (aqueducts are open)
- 3. Ecology (Mono Lake, Saltan Sea, change biomes, changes in water course affects everything)
- 4. Recycling / Reuse (reclamated water/ filtration cycle)
- 5. Reduce (watch the way water is used conservation)
Why was Sacramento identified early on as an important location for development?
It was identified as a great place to build a city because of its natural resourceses and accessability.
Where and why was the levee system put into place?
To protect the land from floods and placed in areas like Jones Tract, Delta (Stockton)
How is / was mining destructive to the landscape?
Because of the techniques were destructive to the land diverting rivers and blasting of hill sides ruining the landscape.
EcoSystem (living/biotic) (non-living/abiotic)
- self sustaining of association of plants and animals ( living and non living)
living: biotic, producers (plants), Consumers (herbavore, carnivore, omnivore), decomposers (fungi)
non-living: abiotic, sun, water, soils / minerals, gases
vertical zonation (5) (mimics rise in altitude)
Come Get Some White Flowers - CGSWF
*temperature , precipitation and soil changes as elevation rises
- low to high
- 1. costal / desert
- 2. grassland (central valley)
- 3. scrubland
- 4. woodland (by rivers, transition zone b/w valley and mountains)
- 5. forrest > tundra (alpine / mosses)
Which marine mammals flourish off the CA coast?
brown pelican, seagull, urchins, starfish, sea lions, seals, sea otters, sandpipers, godwits, curlews
Know the flora and fauna of the kelp forest.
flora - giant kelp
fauna - snails, crab, brittle stars, surf perch, rock fish, Garibaldi,
anemones, sea cucumbers, abalones, sea stars, and urchins
Native Americans view of the lands
- Mojave Tribe (by Colorado River)
- > learned the system of the river, worked with the flooding and receeding of the water levels, adjusted to the land
- Yurok Tribe ( norcal / Klamath)
- > everything has a soul, egocentric (center of the universe) symetrical
Europeans view of the lands
maximize its potential to create a profit and inhabit, alter the land to accomodate thier needs
What started the interest in California by the Spanish?
- - international competition
- - commercial activities of Russians
- - presence of English and Dutch on coast
- - motivated them to protect thier holdings from foreign rivals (1760's)
What started the interest in California by the the Americans later in time?
Gold rush 1849 > became the 31st state > motivation was to tax people who lived there / went there
Spain occupancy: 1769-1821 (4) ways (MPPR)
- 1. Missions (religion)
- 2. Pueblo (civilians)
- 3. Percedio (military)
- 4. Rancho (agriculture)
- - "Christianize" natives
- - Loyalty to Spain
- - Father Serra (9/21)
- - south > north
- - 30miles "El Camino Real"
- - requirements: airable land, fresh water, timber for construction, ocean access for travel, lots of Native Americans to convert
- - control economic activity (citrus and grape)
- - convert natives to Christianity, salvation in exchange for land and work, image was not the reality (bad for natives)
Pueblos (San Jose 1777) (Los Angeles 1781)
- - attract civilian population / settlers
- - San Jose was oldest pueblo (1777) 9 soldiers, 5 families, 1 cowboy
- - Difficult to occupy? > distance decay (Peninsular & Creo did not want to relocate to Alta CA bc they loose thier status if they move > Metizo and Mulato wanted to move to Alta Ca)
- - Los Angeles Pueblo (1781) Nuestra Senora La Reina De Los Angeles De Porciuncula (2 were peninsular)
Spanish Society Rungs (PCMM)
- 1. Peninsular - most connected to crown, born in Spain, sailed to Spain to give birth
- 2. Creo - born in Mexico
- 3. Metizo - Spanish and Native blood mix
- 4. Mulato - Native and African blood mix
Persidio (4 along the coast SD-SB-M-SF)
- - military
- - control Natives
- - protect Spain (missions & ports of trade)
- 1. San Diego (last line of defense)
- 2. Santa Barbara (mid point b/w SD and SF)
- 3. Monterey
- 4. San Francisco
- - poorly equiped, bad military (Mestizo and Mulato, Castas-other mix) training, image of safety only
- - pension land, higher status in Alta CA, good deal for Castas
Spanish ...... Agriculture
Mexican Period (1821-1848)
- - secularized mission (land grants > ranchos)
- - church and state seperate
- - most land turned to ranchos
- - romanticized era
- - "lazy Californians" (clash of perspectives)
Rancho - Mexican
- Main animal cow (grass/land/water)
- > produce (milk/meat/talo<fat>/hide)
Mexican American War
- - Manifest Destiny > Gods Calling
- - Treaty of Guadalupe (Feb. 2, 1848)
- - ended Mexican regime
- - only 100,000 Natives left
Mexican Land Grants vs/ American Settlers
- - organized metes & bounds using landmarks
- - BUT land was changing
- - RESULT land disputes
- provided what was needed to settelers
January 1848 - GOLD
Gold Rush 1859
- 10,000 treasure seekers
- away from cost and move inland to GOLD site
- most found in Sierra foothills "Mother Load"
- expansion agriculture and mercantile
California Indian Population (decline post 1850)
- 20,000 Natives (1916)
- Plains Indians (alcohol/measles/bullets)
- Madoc Wars (1864 treaty > reservation) N CA
- victim of "progress"
Central Pacific Railroad > Southern Pacific