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Describe relative anemia and give one instance that would cause it.
Develops when total RBC cell mass is normal, but fluid in plasma has been expanded.
Ex: Overhydrating with fluids.
What are some clinical signs of anemia?
Pale MM's, reduced exercise tolerance, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate
What two values are considered when classifying an anemia as morphologic?
1.) MCV: normocytic, microcytic or macrocytic.
2.) MCHC: normochromic or hypochromic.
What two ways are bone marrow response classified with regards to anemia?
What are some things you would see on a blood film in regenerative anemia?
Polychromasia, NRBC's, Anisocytosis w/ increased MCV indicating presence of macrocytes.
What are two major causes of regenerative anemia?
Hemorrhage and Hemolysis
What are two major causes of nonregenrative anemia?
Nutrient deficiencies or bone marrow failure.
What is primary bone marrow failure medically termed? What causes it?
- Hypoplastic/ aplastic anemia.
- Bone marrow infection, toxins or exhaustion from overstimulation.
What causes secondary bone marrow failure?
Usually a lack of erythropoietin production by the kidneys.
What can primary absolute polycythemia cause?
Elevated BP, vasucar damage, clot formation.
What is primary absolute polycythemia?
Overproduction of red cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by a mild increase in leukocytes and platelets.
What is secondary absolute polycythemia?
Develops in response to hypoxemia and erythropoietin production. Can also occur with any decrease in bloodflow to the kidney.
True/False: Relative polycythemia is more clinically significant than absolute polycythemia.
What are two causes of relative polycythemia?
2.) Release of storage reserves of red cells in response to stress, excitment or muscular exersice.
As PCV values become higher than ____%, capillary circulation and tissue oxygenation diminish, decreasing animals chance of survival.
Peak response to a single bleeding episode takes how many days?