220 skin, hair, nail

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elevatedsound7
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203017
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220 skin, hair, nail
Updated:
2013-02-28 05:53:07
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220 skin hair nails
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220 skin, hair, nails
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  1. two layers of the epidermis are
    • stratum corneum (horny cell layer)
    • stratum germinativum (basal cell layer)
  2. three layers of skin are
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • subcutaneous
  3. primary skin lesions include
    • macule
    • papule
    • patch
    • plaque
    • nodule
    • wheal
    • tumor
    • urticaria
    • vesicle
    • cyst
    • bulla
    • pustule
  4. secondary skin lesions include
    • crust
    • scale
    • fissure
    • erosion
    • ulcer
    • excoriation
    • scar
    • atrophic scar
    • lichenification
    • keloid
  5. macule =
    • solely¬† color change
    • flat and circumscribed
    • ie freckles, measles, petechiae, scarlet fever
    • primary lesion
  6. papule =
    • something you can feel
    • less than 1 cm diameter
    • mole, wart
    • primary lesion
  7. patch =
    • macules that are larger than 1 cm
    • ie vetiligo, monogoliam spot
    • primary lesion
  8. plaque =
    • papules collect to form greater than 1 cm
    • psoriasis
    • primary lesion
  9. nodule=
    • solid elevated and hard
    • larger than 1 cm
    • may extend deeper into dermis than papule
    • primary lesion
  10. wheal =
    • superficial, raised, transient, and erythematous
    • ie mosquito bite, allergic reaction
    • primary lesion
  11. tumor =
    • larger than a few cm
    • primary lesion
  12. urticaria =
    • hives
    • wheal coalesce to form extensive reaction
    • intensely pruritic
    • primary lesion
  13. vesicle=
    • elevated cavity containing clear fluid
    • blister
    • clear serum flow
    • chicken pox, herpes zoster
    • less than 1 cm
    • primary lesion
  14. bulla
    • larger than 1 cm Blister
    • friction blister
    • primary lesion
  15. cyst =
    • encapsulated fluid filled cavity in dermis or subcutanous
    • tensely elevated skin
    • primary lesion
  16. pustule -
    • turbid fluid(pus) in cavity
    • impetigo acne
    • primary lesion
  17. crust =
    • thickened dried up exudate when pustules, vesicles burst or dry up
    • scab
  18. scale =
    • compact desicated flakes
    • dry skin, psoriasis after it dries up
  19. fissure=
    • linear crack with abrupt edges
    • extends into dermis
  20. erosion =
    • scooped out but shallow depression
    • epidermis lost
    • moist but no bleeding
  21. ulcer -
    deep depression extending into dermis
  22. excoriation =
    • self-inflicted abrasion
    • scratching
  23. atrophic scar =
    stretch marks
  24. lichenification=
    • prolonged intense scratching produces this
    • looks like surface of moss
  25. keloid =
    • hypertrophic scar
    • raised and thick scar
    • higher incidence among blacks
  26. where are blood vessels in skin located
    subcutaneous and up into dermis
  27. eponnychium =
    cuticle
  28. moon shaped white area at base of nail
    lunule
  29. where skin and nail meet
    nail groove
  30. top of nail
    nail plate
  31. questions to ask in subjective data about skin
    • prvious history of skin disease (allergies, hives,psoriasis etc)
    • change in mole
    • change in pigmentation
    • excessive dryness or moisture
    • pruritus
    • excessive bruising
    • rash or lesion
    • meds
    • hair loss
    • change in nails
    • environ or occupational hazards
    • self care behaviors
  32. additional history of aging adult
    • changes in skin over last few years
    • any dela in skin healing
    • itching
    • pain
    • chages in feet or toenails
    • falls
    • diabetes
    • PVD
  33. Equipment needed foe exam
    • strong direct light
    • cm ruler
    • penlight
    • gloves
  34. what to assess about color of skin
    • general pigmentation
    • widespread color change pallor, erythema, cyanosis, jaundice
  35. when insepcting and palapating skin you
    • look at color
    • temp
    • moisture
    • texture
    • thickness
    • edema
    • mobility and tugor
    • vascularity, bruising
  36. mobility =
    ease of rising
  37. tugor=
    rate at which skin returns to normal when pinched up
  38. what to assess on a lesion
    • color
    • elevation
    • pattern or shape
    • size
    • location and distribution on body
    • exudate
  39. how to assess hair
    • color
    • texture
    • distribution
    • lesions
  40. nails inspect and palpate
    • shape, contour
    • consistency
    • color - capillary refill
  41. normal nail profile =
    160 degrees
  42. curved nail profile
    160 degrees or less
  43. early clubbing of nail profile =
    180 degrees
  44. ABCDE
    • assymmetry
    • border
    • color
    • diameter
    • elevation and enlargement
  45. annular shape =
    • circular
    • begins in center and spreads to periphery
    • tinea corpea
  46. confluent shape
    • lesions run together
    • hives
  47. discrete shape and configuration
    distinct individual lesions and remain seperate
  48. gyrate formation =
    snakelike
  49. linear
    scratch or streak
  50. zosteriform =
    • linear arrangement along a unilateral nerve
    • herpes zoster (shingles)
  51. grouped =
    clusters of lesions
  52. target =
    iris of eye
  53. how often should you examine skin
    once a month
  54. hemangiomas
    • port wine stain(nevus flammeus)
    • strawberry mark (immature hemangioma)
  55. telangiectases
    • spider or star angioma
    • venous lake
  56. purpuric lesion
    • petechiae
    • purpura
  57. lsions casue by trauma or abuse =
    • pattern injury
    • hematoma
    • ecchymosis
  58. skin lesions associated with aids =
    epidemic kaposi's sarcoma
  59. pediculosis capitis =
    head lice
  60. Tinea caitis =
    scalp ringworm
  61. seborrheic dermatitis =
    cradle cap
  62. alopecia areata =
    sudden round patches of baldness
  63. folliculitis =
    superficial infection of hair follicle
  64. Paronychia
    • red swollen tender inflammation of nail folds
    • bacterial infection
  65. Beaus line =
    • transverse furrow or groove in nail
    • trauma that impairs nail growth
  66. habit tic dystrophy
    • depression down middle of the nail
    • caused by nail picking

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