rtvf quizzz

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  1. vertical integrated video switcher
    standard type, special circuitry that delays any cuts until the entire system is in vertical blanking (vertical integral) 60 times a second, clean cuts every time
  2. component switcher
    deals with individual RG&B components separately rather than using complete encoded color signal
  3. digital switchers
    process a stream of digital information, some handle single composite signal or separate component
  4. three switcher applications
    1. production and editing-sound is done separately 2. on-air switchers coordinate sources of finished production and sends output directly to transmitter and different feeds: always "audio-follows-video" 3. routing switchers: sends programs to different destinations, often audio follows video
  5. production switcher flow diagram
    buses, 2 outputs (preview & program), other 2 program DA outputs are going to VTRs where show is recorded
  6. program output on switcher
    distribution amplifier then one output goes to a program monitor and the other goes to on-air switcher where it is fed to transmitter
  7. three transitions all production switchers are capable of
    cuts, fades, and dissolves. all other effects are "bells and whistles." wipes are transitions between video sources that are marked by visible edges.
  8. luminance keys
    nonlinear, triggered by differences in brightness (contrast). if the pattern that cuts the hole also fills the hole: self-fill key
  9. if the hole in a luminance key is filled by artificially created color from within the switcher itself
    matte key
  10. if the pattern the system derives from this source
    key source or key signal
  11. the hole in a luminance key can also be filled from a
    third source (camera 3)
  12. the greater the key source contrast between the desired pattern and background
    the easier. white on black is ideal. others have "clip"adjustments that allow you to compensate
  13. laying a key over the video without punching all of the way through it
    a linear or transparent key (first down line in football)
  14. chroma keys
    cut a hole out of the video but unlike luminance keys the triggering device is not contras but a particular color in the subject video. replaces the color with another source. the camera that shoots the chroma key window is source camera
  15. must use _____ for chroma keys
    primary colors but not red because of flesh.
  16. chroma keys have
    clip control and hue (chroma) control that allows you to choose the color to be keyed out and a gain control that controls the strength of the source picture
  17. digital video effects
    compressions are effects that change the entire aspect of the picture: longer, higher or compressed. common use is chroma key tracking (entire fill video is compressed to fit into the chroma key window)
  18. pushes
    dve, video source pushes another off screen
  19. flips
    DVE, a page flip, picture rotates around one edge of the screen as if you were turning the page of a book, other flips can rotate around a central/vertical axis
  20. rotations
    DVE, rotating cubes and spheres are 2 other digital effects with video images making up the outer surfaces of these geometric shapes
  21. digital interpolation
    digital video effects are made possible by manipulating the numbers that represent the brightness and color info for each pixel or by creating new numbers through a mathematical process
  22. manipulation (chroma key tracking)
    a line of video has about 700 pixels in digital stream, the brightness of each pixel is represented by numbers 0 to 255 so a line is 700 numbers. if we removed every other line, 350 pixels compressed to half a line
  23. interpolation
    reverses manipulation by adding additional pixels in between
  24. distinct voltages
    represented by digital video is a series of 0s and 1s. numbers are converted back to distinct voltages to form an analog video
  25. digital graphic systems
    produce simple letters and numbers to create complex, detailed original illustrations and manipulate images on the screen, provide an interface between the process of entering a series of numbers and the person who needs to get the job done
  26. two things CG needs
    operate in a manner similar to what the user is already familiar with, and new equipment needs to be flexible (needs to be capable of a lot)
  27. character generators
    first digital graphics units, intended to be used like a word processor, earliest CGs only put white letters on black background for "keys" , pages used to measure the CG memory but now it is measured like other computers
  28. computer-generated imagery (CGI)
    allows you to easily compose drawings or combinations of illustrations and text that can be manipulated in different forms, has something that looks like pencil and paper=electronic palette & stylus
  29. electronic palette and stylus
    when point of pen touches palette, a cross appears on screen. lines move as pen moves, you can choose colors, styles and textures, the keyboard terminal enters text into artwork
  30. digital video effects allow users to manipulate
    digital video signals. video comes out of switcher and into the DVE then back into switcher
  31. dedicated equipment
    each piece of equipment is dedicated to one specific job (switcher, CG).
  32. open architecture equipment
    special adapters can be built to allow the video signal and computer to be integrated. computer is open to many uses depending on the software, can use with a home computer. cheaper than dedicated
  33. drawbacks of open architecture
    slower than dedicated (have to enter instructions for everything through keyboard rather than just one button) must plan out everything in advance to not waste time. operates on a computer which can crash, system costs under 5,000. high quality 10,000.
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rtvf quizzz
2013-02-25 16:44:16

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