Neuro Exam 2.6
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hypothalamus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
What are the major functions of the hypothalamus?
What are the boundaries of the hypothalamus?
- lies ventral to hypothalamic sulcus
- lies beneath thalamus
- extends fromm region of optic chiasma to caudal borders of mammillary bodies
The hypothalamus contains how many functional areas?
What are the 4 functional areas of the hypothalamus?
- supraoptic region
- preoptic region
- tuberal region
- mammillary region
What determines the different functional area of the hypothalamus?
Where is the supraoptic region of the hypothalamus?
The supraoptic region is located just b/w what structures?
optic chiasma and 3rd ventricle
How many distinct nuclei does the supraoptic region contain?
Where do the 2 distinct nuclei of the supraoptic region project to?
posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland
What are the 2 distinct nuclei of the supraoptic region?
- paraventricular nucleus
- supraoptic nucleus
The supraoptic region is the controlling seat of which nervous system?
How many not distinct nuclei does the supraoptic region have?
The supraoptic region has one not distinct nucleus which receives direct projections from where?
Note the relationship from eye to hypothalamus visual stimulation can stimulate:
visceral responses such as nausea
Where is the preoptic region?
Where is the preoptic region in comparison to the supraoptic region?
superior to supraoptic region
How many nuclei does the preoptic region contain?
What is the most important nucleus of the preoptic region?
preoptic periventricular nucleus
Which nervous system is the preoptic region involved w/?
Where is the tuberal region?
- middle hypothalamus
- in the middle
Which region is the largest functional area of the hypothalamus?
How many nuclei does the tuberal region contain?
Which nervous system is the tuberal region involved w/?
In the tuberal region what structure passes through on its way to terminate w/ the mammillary bodies?
Where is the mammillary region?
What is contained in the mammillary region?
mammillary bodies (nuclei)
The fornix terminates by synapsing w/ what?
When the fornix terminates in the mammillary bodies, it connects w/ what system?
Does the hypothalamus have afferent or efferent connections?
both afferent and efferent
What are the prominent areas of reciprocal afferent and efferent connections from the hypothalamus?
- reticular formation
- amygdaloid nuclear complex
- hippocampal formation
- olfactory regions
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
- involved w/ visceral, autonomic, and endocrine
- synthesizes hormones which are stored in neurohypophysis
- involved w/ supraspinal control of autonomic NS
- involved w/ thirst and water uptake, temperature regulation, hunger, emotional states, libido
The hypothalamus controls the activity of:
The hypothalamus controls the anterior lobe by synthesizing what?
For every hormone produced in the anterior lobe, how many releasing factors are produced?
the hypothalamus produces one RF
The releasing factors reach the anterior lobe via the:
What does the infundibulum contain?
axons of the neurons in the hypothalamus which synthesize RF
The releasing factors are picked up by:
capillaries of the cardiovascular system located in the infundibulum (pituitary portal system): normal cardiovascular system to the hypothalamus
Where are releasing factors carried to after picked up by capillaries?
carried to anterior lobe via capillaries and then leave and enter anterior lobe tissue
What is the function of the releasing factors of the adenohypophysis?
stimulate synthesis and secretion of hormones from anterior lobe into cardiovascular system
FYI: What 8 major hormones are synthesized and released from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)?
- thyrotrophic hormone
- growth hormone
- follicle stimulating
What does the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) control?
What kind of control is the adenohypophysis under?
chemical control not neurological
What is the master gland of the body?
Where is the neurohypophysis?
Hormones of the neuropophysis are synthesized by neurons located in:
preoptic and supraoptic regions
Hormones of the neurohypophysis are transported to the posterior lobe by what?
axons of the same neurons which synthesized them via axonal transport system
Where are axons of the neurohypophysis found?
Where are hormones stored?
in posterior lobe
Upon neurological stimulation from the same neurons which synthesized them, hormones of the neurohypophysis are released into the:
What type of control is the neuropophysis under?
What two hormones are involved in the neuropophysis?
What does oxytocin cause?
smooth muscle cells to contract during birthing
What is vasopressin?
- vasoconstrictor (raises BP)
The sympathetic system is influenced by which region of the hypothalamus?
The parasympathetic system is influenced by which regions of the hypothalamus?
preoptic and supraoptic regions
Where is the subthalamic region?
- ventral to thalamus
- medial to internal capsule and later and caudal to hypothalamus
What are the contents of the subthalamic region?
- several distinct nuclei
- subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, nuclei of tegmental fields of forel
- extensive afferent and efferent connections
- involved w/ motor integration activities
What is the most important connection of the subthalamic region?
Where do the pallidosubthalamic fibers come from?
Are the pallidosubthalamic fibers afferent or efferent?
What are some other afferent and efferent connections w/ the subthalamic region?
substantia nigra, tegmentum, and cortex
The subthalamic region involved with the motor integration activities is a part of which system?
What is the clinical significance of the subthalamic region?
Destruction of the subthalamus nucleus will result in hemballism
What is hemballism?
- violent, forceful, involuntary movements of the extremities on the contralateral side of the lesion
- more violent that choreoid like movements
- usually follows bleeding events
The optic nerves are embryonically:
outgrowths of the diencephalon
Which cranial nerves are the optic nn?
Are the optic nerves true nerves?
no, they are tracts of the brain (neurons outside the brain)
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