Neuro Exam 2.6

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Neuro Exam 2.6
2013-02-25 21:42:14
neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy

review of neuro lecture 6 for exam 2
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  1. hypothalamus is part of which vesicle of the brain?
  2. What are the major functions of the hypothalamus?
    • visceral
    • autonomic
    • endocrine
  3. What are the boundaries of the hypothalamus?
    • lies ventral to hypothalamic sulcus
    • lies beneath thalamus
    • extends fromm region of optic chiasma to caudal borders of mammillary bodies
  4. The hypothalamus contains how many functional areas?
  5. What are the 4 functional areas of the hypothalamus?
    • supraoptic region
    • preoptic region
    • tuberal region
    • mammillary region
  6. What determines the different functional area of the hypothalamus?
    their nuclei
  7. Where is the supraoptic region of the hypothalamus?
    anterior hypothalamus
  8. The supraoptic region is located just b/w what structures?
    optic chiasma and 3rd ventricle
  9. How many distinct nuclei does the supraoptic region contain?
  10. Where do the 2 distinct nuclei of the supraoptic region project to?
    posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland
  11. What are the 2 distinct nuclei of the supraoptic region?
    • paraventricular nucleus
    • supraoptic nucleus
  12. The supraoptic region is the controlling seat of which nervous system?
    parasympthetic NS
  13. How many not distinct nuclei does the supraoptic region have?
  14. The supraoptic region has one not distinct nucleus which receives direct projections from where?
    the retina
  15. Note the relationship from eye to hypothalamus visual stimulation can stimulate:
    visceral responses such as nausea
  16. Where is the preoptic region?
    medial hypothalamus
  17. Where is the preoptic region in comparison to the supraoptic region?
    superior to supraoptic region
  18. How many nuclei does the preoptic region contain?
  19. What is the most important nucleus of the preoptic region?
    preoptic periventricular nucleus
  20. Which nervous system is the preoptic region involved w/?
    parasympathetic NS
  21. Where is the tuberal region?
    • middle hypothalamus
    • in the middle
  22. Which region is the largest functional area of the hypothalamus?
    tuberal region
  23. How many nuclei does the tuberal region contain?
  24. Which nervous system is the tuberal region involved w/?
    sympathetic NS
  25. In the tuberal region what structure passes through on its way to terminate w/ the mammillary bodies?
  26. Where is the mammillary region?
    caudal hypothalamus
  27. What is contained in the mammillary region?
    mammillary bodies (nuclei)
  28. The fornix terminates by synapsing w/ what?
    mammillary nuclei
  29. When the fornix terminates in the mammillary bodies, it connects w/ what system?
  30. Does the hypothalamus have afferent or efferent connections?
    both afferent and efferent
  31. What are the prominent areas of reciprocal afferent and efferent connections from the hypothalamus?
    • reticular formation
    • amygdaloid nuclear complex
    • hippocampal formation
    • fornix
    • retina
    • olfactory regions
  32. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
    • involved w/ visceral, autonomic, and endocrine
    • synthesizes hormones which are stored in neurohypophysis
    • involved w/ supraspinal control of autonomic NS
    • involved w/ thirst and water uptake, temperature regulation, hunger, emotional states, libido
  33. The hypothalamus controls the activity of:
  34. The hypothalamus controls the anterior lobe by synthesizing what?
    releasing factors
  35. For every hormone produced in the anterior lobe, how many releasing factors are produced?
    the hypothalamus produces one RF
  36. The releasing factors reach the anterior lobe via the:
  37. What does the infundibulum contain?
    axons of the neurons in the hypothalamus which synthesize RF
  38. The releasing factors are picked up by:
    capillaries of the cardiovascular system located in the infundibulum (pituitary portal system): normal cardiovascular system to the hypothalamus
  39. Where are releasing factors carried to after picked up by capillaries?
    carried to anterior lobe via capillaries and then leave and enter anterior lobe tissue
  40. What is the function of the releasing factors of the adenohypophysis?
    stimulate synthesis and secretion of hormones from anterior lobe into cardiovascular system
  41. FYI: What 8 major hormones are synthesized and released from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)?
    • thyrotrophic hormone
    • growth hormone
    • prolactin
    • lutenizing
    • melatonin
    • follicle stimulating
    • glandotrophic
    • ardenocorticotrophic
  42. What does the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) control?
    endocrine system
  43. What kind of control is the adenohypophysis under?
    chemical control not neurological
  44. What is the master gland of the body?
  45. Where is the neurohypophysis?
    posterior lobe
  46. Hormones of the neuropophysis are synthesized by neurons located in:
    preoptic and supraoptic regions
  47. Hormones of the neurohypophysis are transported to the posterior lobe by what?
    axons of the same neurons which synthesized them via axonal transport system
  48. Where are axons of the neurohypophysis found?
    in infundibulum
  49. Where are hormones stored?
    in posterior lobe
  50. Upon neurological stimulation from the same neurons which synthesized them, hormones of the neurohypophysis are released into the:
    cardiovascular system
  51. What type of control is the neuropophysis under?
  52. What two hormones are involved in the neuropophysis?
    • oxytocin
    • vasopressin
  53. What does oxytocin cause?
    smooth muscle cells to contract during birthing
  54. What is vasopressin?
    • vasoconstrictor (raises BP)
    • antidiuretic
  55. The sympathetic system is influenced by which region of the hypothalamus?
  56. The parasympathetic system is influenced by which regions of the hypothalamus?
    preoptic and supraoptic regions
  57. Where is the subthalamic region?
    • ventral to thalamus
    • medial to internal capsule and later and caudal to hypothalamus
  58. What are the contents of the subthalamic region?
    • several distinct nuclei
    • subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, nuclei of tegmental fields of forel
    • extensive afferent and efferent connections
    • involved w/ motor integration activities
  59. What is the most important connection of the subthalamic region?
    pallidosubthalamic fibers
  60. Where do the pallidosubthalamic fibers come from?
    globus pallidus
  61. Are the pallidosubthalamic fibers afferent or efferent?
  62. What are some other afferent and efferent connections w/ the subthalamic region?
    substantia nigra, tegmentum, and cortex
  63. The subthalamic region involved with the motor integration activities is a part of which system?
  64. What is the clinical significance of the subthalamic region?
    Destruction of the subthalamus nucleus will result in hemballism
  65. What is hemballism?
    • violent, forceful, involuntary movements of the extremities on the contralateral side of the lesion
    • more violent that choreoid like movements
    • usually follows bleeding events
  66. The optic nerves are embryonically:
    outgrowths of the diencephalon
  67. Which cranial nerves are the optic nn?
    CN II
  68. Are the optic nerves true nerves?
    no, they are tracts of the brain (neurons outside the brain)