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What is Pica?
Is typified by the age-inappropriate, persistent eating of at least one nonfood item (e.g. dirt, hair, insect, and paints) for at least a 1-month period. Pica may occur with another mental disorder and must be severe enough to require clinical assistance. No standard of treatment and most effective approach involves behavior modification.
Is characterized by repetitive instances of reguritation and re-chewing of food over a period of at least i month. The onset must have been preceeded by a period of normal functioning and the behavior should not be the result of a medication condition. The treatment for this disorder is based on the cause of the behavior.
A sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization. It may involve a few muscles or simple sounds that are usually of short duration (eg. eye blinking, jerking of neck, grimacing) or consist of complex combinations of different muscle groups or words and sentences usually of longer duration.
Involves obscene gestures and words. The onset must be before age 18 and is not the direct result of a medical condition or a substance.
Involves a repetition of one's own sounds and words. The onset must be before age 18 and is not the direct result of a medical condition or a substance.
Involves the repetition of the last sound or word of another individual. The onset must be before age 18 and is not the direct result of a medical condition or a substance.
Involves multiple motor tics and a minimum of one vocal tic over the course of the disorder. Tic must occur multiple times per day almost every day or intermittently for more than 12 months. During this period, there should be no more than 3 consecutive months that are considered "tic-free." There are no specific medications for any of the Tic Disorders. Antipsychotic meds and ant-hypertensive agents are used to decrease the tics.
Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorde?
Involves either single or multiple motor tics, or vocal tics over more than a 1-year time period. There are no specific medications for any of the Tic Disorders. Antipsychotic meds and ant-hypertensive agents are used to decrease the tics.
Transient Tic Disorder?
Is characteized by single o multiple motor and/or vocal tics that occur repetitively over a day's time, on most days, for a minimum of a 4-week period and a maximum of 12 consecutive months. There are no specific medications for any of the Tic Disorders. Antipsychotic meds and ant-hypertensive agents are used to decrease the tics.
What are the two Elimination Disorder?
Encopresis and Enuresis.
What is Encopresis?
Is characterized by a pattern of expelling feces into places deemed inappropriate (eg. clothing, floor) by individual who is at least 4 years old. There must be a minimum of one of these events each month over at least a 3 month time period and it must not be directly related to the effect of a subsantance or a medical condition. It may be voluntary or involuntary and is more common in males. Psychotherapy may be used to help the child cope with the shame, guilt, or loss of self-esteem associated with this disorder.
What is Enuresis?
Is characterized by pattern of urinating in bed or clothing by an individual who is at least five years of age. Urination must occur at least twice a week over at least 3 consecutive months or must result in significant distress or impairmen. Urination may be voluntary or involuntary. When medication is indicated, desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) is currently the preferred medication. A behavioral approach is the most common treatment approach.
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